Bio: Jinyi Wang is an academic researcher from Laboratory of Molecular Biology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Methacrylate & Surface modification. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 26 publications receiving 911 citations. Previous affiliations of Jinyi Wang include University of California, Los Angeles & Northwest A&F University.
TL;DR: Findings establish that the NPs containing the synthesized redox-responsive polymer MPEG-SS-PLA can be used as potential carrier systems for antitumor drug delivery.
Abstract: Rice-like polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) composed of a new redox-responsive polymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (MPEG-SS-PLA), were prepared to carry paclitaxel (PTX) for glutathione (GSH)-regulated drug delivery. The PTX-loaded MPEG-SS-PLA NPs were fabricated using an optimized oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The size and morphology of the prepared NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM results demonstrate that the NPs were dispersed as individual particles and were rice-shaped. The PTX loading efficiency, in vitro release, and stability of the NPs were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC results revealed that the NPs released almost 90% PTX within 96 h when GSH presented at intracellular concentrations, whereas only a very small PTX amount was released at plasma GSH levels. The in vitro cytotoxicities of the NPs against A549, MCF-7, and HeLa carcinoma cells were assessed using a standard methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliun (MTT) assay. The MTT assay results show that the NPs caused concentration- and time-dependent changes in cell viability. To investigate the cellular uptake of the PTX-loaded NPs, visual endocytosis assay was performed using the fluorescent dye coumarin-6 as a model drug. The endocytosis assay results reveal rapid penetration and intracellular accumulation of coumarin-6-loaded NPs, as well as rapid coumarin-6 dispersion from the NPs. Overall, these findings establish that the NPs containing the synthesized redox-responsive polymer MPEG-SS-PLA can be used as potential carrier systems for antitumor drug delivery.
TL;DR: Analysis of the cell membrane root-mean-square (RMS) roughness showed that under the action of colchicine and cytarabine, RMS values for the cell membranes of all three tumor cell types were positively correlated to the drug concentration and reaction time.
Abstract: Integrity of the cell membrane is a basic requirement for maintaining the biological characteristics of a cell. In this study, changes in the morphology and ultrastructure of HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma), and C6 (rat glioma) cells were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) both before and after treatment with the anti-cancer drugs, colchicine or cytarabine. In response to both drugs, the microstructure of the cell membrane of all three cell types displayed similar changes; that is, with increases in drug concentration and reaction time, the degree of morphological changes on the surface of cell membrane increased. These changes included increases in the fluctuation of the surface components of the cell membrane, increase in shrinkage, or even the appearance of pores. Cell viability was maintained, as determined by optical microscope observation of gross cell morphology and by MTT assay results. Analysis of the cell membrane root-mean-square (RMS) roughness showed that under the action of colchicine and cytarabine, RMS values for the cell membranes of all three tumor cell types were positively correlated to the drug concentration and reaction time. This research has great significance for the visual diagnosis of early stage apoptosis in tumor cells in response to anti-cancer drugs, as well as in the studies on the interaction between drugs and cells. The use of AFM can be a rapid and sensitive visual method for studying the interaction between cells and drug.
TL;DR: F folate-decorated hybrid polymeric NPs are potential carriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery and folic acid promotes drug-loaded NP cellular uptake through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME).
Abstract: In this study, folate-functionalized hybrid polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared as carriers of low water solubility paclitaxel for tumor targeting, which were composed of monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide)-paclitaxel (MPEG-PLA-paclitaxel) and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)-folate (TPGS-FOL). NPs with various weight ratios of MPEG-PLA-paclitaxel and TPGS-FOL were prepared using a solvent extraction/evaporation method, which can also physically encapsulate paclitaxel. The size, size distribution, surface charge, and morphology of the drug-loaded NPs were characterized using a Zetasizer Nano ZS, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The encapsulation and drug loading efficiencies of these polymeric NPs are analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 227 nm. The combination of covalent coupling and physical encapsulation is found to improve the loading of paclitaxel in NPs greatly. The in vitro antitumor activity of the drug-loaded NPs is assessed using a standard method of transcriptional and translational (MTT) assays against HeLa and glioma C6 cells. When the cells were exposed to NPs with the same paclitaxel weights, cell viability decreases in relation to the increase in TPGS-FOL in drug-loaded NPs. To investigate drug-loaded NP cellular uptake, the fluorescent dye coumarin-6 is utilized as a model drug and enveloped in NPs with 0 or 50% TPGS-FOL. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis shows that cellular uptake is lower for coumarin-6-loaded NPs with 0% TPGS-FOL than those with 50% TPGS-FOL. However, no difference for NIH 3T3 cells with normally expressed folate receptors is found. Results from in vitro antitumor activity and cellular uptake assay demonstrate that folic acid promotes drug-loaded NP cellular uptake through folate receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME). All of these results demonstrate that folate-decorated hybrid polymeric NPs are potential carriers for tumor-targeted drug delivery.
TL;DR: The results suggest that the PDMS-PolyPEG surface exhibited durable wettability and stability, as well as significantly anti-adhesion properties, compared with native PDMS surfaces.
Abstract: The current paper reports the synthesis of a highly hydrophilic, antifouling dendronized poly(3,4,5-tris(2-(2-(2-hydroxylethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)benzyl methacrylate) (PolyPEG) brush using surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) on PDMS substrates. The PDMS substrates were first oxidized in H 2 SO 4 /H 2 O 2 solution to transform the Si–CH 3 groups on their surfaces into Si–OH groups. Subsequently, a surface initiator for ATRP was immobilized onto the PDMS surface, and PolyPEG was finally grafted onto the PDMS surface via copper-mediated ATRP. Various characterization techniques, including contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were used to ascertain the successful grafting of the PolyPEG brush onto the PDMS surface. Furthermore, the wettability and stability of the PDMS–PolyPEG surface were examined by contact angle measurements. Anti-adhesion properties were investigated via protein adsorption, as well as bacterial and cell adhesion studies. The results suggest that the PDMS–PolyPEG surface exhibited durable wettability and stability, as well as significantly anti-adhesion properties, compared with native PDMS surfaces. Additionally, our results present possible uses for the PDMS–PolyPEG surface as adhesion barriers and anti-fouling or functional surfaces in biomedical applications.
TL;DR: The potential utility of this integrated microfluidic system in the research of dynamic microenvironmental influence to cells using a patho-physiological interaction during cancer initiation and progression is carried out.
Abstract: We presented an integrated microfluidic system for dynamical study of cell-microenvironmental interactions. We demonstrated its precisely spatio-temporal control in the flow direction and the multi-site staying of the fluids by groups of monolithic microfabricated valves through digital operation, aside from the regulated communication between two loci based on real-time microenvironment transition. Using this system, a series of functional manipulations, including specific delivery, addressable surface treatment, positional cell loading and co-culture were performed quickly and efficiently for biological applications. Sequentially, we carried out the potential utility of this system in the research of dynamic microenvironmental influence to cells using a patho-physiological interaction during cancer initiation and progression. Our results exhibit the passive role but collaborative response of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts to the soluble signals from hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and also the variable behaviors of carcinoma cells under different environmental stimulation. This system can facilitate the in vitro investigation of cell-microenvironmental interactions occurred in numerous biological and pathogenic processes.
TL;DR: This review will focus on the nature of the polymers involved in the preparation of targeted nanocarriers, the synthesis methods to achieve the desired macromolecular architecture, the selected coupling strategy, and the choice of the homing molecules (vitamins, hormones, peptides, proteins, etc.), as well as the various strategies to display them at the surface of nanoccarriers.
Abstract: Design and functionalization strategies for multifunctional nanocarriers (e.g., nanoparticles, micelles, polymersomes) based on biodegradable/biocompatible polymers intended to be employed for active targeting and drug delivery are reviewed. This review will focus on the nature of the polymers involved in the preparation of targeted nanocarriers, the synthesis methods to achieve the desired macromolecular architecture, the selected coupling strategy, the choice of the homing molecules (vitamins, hormones, peptides, proteins, etc.), as well as the various strategies to display them at the surface of nanocarriers. The resulting morphologies and the main colloidal features will be given as well as an overview of the biological activities, with a special focus on the main in vivo achievements.
TL;DR: This review outlines some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture and focuses on decisive factors that distinguish Macroscopic from microfluidity cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopy cell culture principles might apply to micro fluidiccell culture.
Abstract: Culture of cells using various microfluidic devices is becoming more common within experimental cell biology. At the same time, a technological radiation of microfluidic cell culture device designs is currently in progress. Ultimately, the utility of microfluidic cell culture will be determined by its capacity to permit new insights into cellular function. Especially insights that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with macroscopic cell culture in traditional polystyrene dishes, flasks or well-plates. Many decades of heuristic optimization have gone into perfecting conventional cell culture devices and protocols. In comparison, even for the most commonly used microfluidic cell culture devices, such as those fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), collective understanding of the differences in cellular behavior between microfluidic and macroscopic culture is still developing. Moving in vitro culture from macroscopic culture to PDMS based devices can come with unforeseen challenges. Changes in device material, surface coating, cell number per unit surface area or per unit media volume may all affect the outcome of otherwise standard protocols. In this review, we outline some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture. We focus on decisive factors that distinguish macroscopic from microfluidic cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopic cell culture principles might apply to microfluidic cell culture.
TL;DR: The successful demonstration of electrophoresis and electroosmotic pumping in a microfluidic device provided a nonmechanical method for both fluid control and separation, and integration of multiple processes can be highly enabling for many applications.
Abstract: Microfluidics consist of microfabricated structures for liquid handling, with cross-sections in the 1–500 μm range, and small volume capacity (fL-nL) Capillary tubes connected with fittings,1 although utilizing small volumes, are not considered microfluidics for the purposes of this paper since they are not microfabricated Likewise, millifluidic systems, made by conventional machining tools, are excluded due to their larger feature sizes (>500 μm) Though micromachined systems for gas chromatography were introduced in the 1970’s,2 the field of microfluidics did not gain much traction until the 1990’s3 Silicon and glass were the original materials used, but then the focus shifted to include polymer substrates, and in particular, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Since then the field has grown to encompass a wide variety of materials and applications The successful demonstration of electrophoresis and electroosmotic pumping in a microfluidic device provided a nonmechanical method for both fluid control and separation4 Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) enabled sensitive detection of fluorophores or fluorescently labeled molecules The expanded availability of low-cost printing allowed for cheaper and quicker mask fabrication for use in soft lithography5 Commercial microfluidic systems are now available from Abbott, Agilent, Caliper, Dolomite, Micralyne, Microfluidic Chip Shop, Micrux Technologies and Waters, as a few prominent examples For a more thorough description of the history of microfluidics, we refer the reader to a number of comprehensive, specialized reviews,3, 6–11 as well as a more general 2006 review12 The field of microfluidics offers many advantages compared to carrying out processes through bulk solution chemistry, the first of which relates to a lesson taught to every first-year chemistry student Simply stated, diffusion is slow! Thus, the smaller the distance required for interaction, the faster it will be Smaller channel dimensions also lead to smaller sample volumes (fL-nL), which can reduce the amount of sample or reagents required for testing and analysis Reduced dimensions can also lead to portable devices to enable on-site testing (provided the associated hardware is similarly portable) Finally, integration of multiple processes (like labeling, purification, separation and detection) in a microfluidic device can be highly enabling for many applications Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) contain integrated electrical and mechanical parts that create a sensor or system Applications of MEMS are ubiquitous, including automobiles, phones, video games and medical and biological sensors13 Micro-total analysis systems, also known as labs-on-a-chip, are the chemical analogue of MEMS, as integrated microfluidic devices that are capable of automating multiple processes relevant to laboratory sciences For example, a typical lab-on-a-chip system might selectively purify a complex mixture (through filtering, antibody capture, etc), then separate target components and detect them Microfluidic devices consist of a core of common components Areas defined by empty space, such as reservoirs (wells), chambers and microchannels, are central to microfluidic systems Positive features, created by areas of solid material, add increased functionality to a chip and can consist of membranes, monoliths, pneumatic controls, beams and pillars Given the ubiquitous nature of negative components, and microchannels in particular, we focus here on a few of their properties Microfluidic channels have small overall volumes, laminar flow and a large surface-to-volume ratio Dimensions of a typical separation channel in microchip electrophoresis (μCE) are: 50 μm width, 15 μm height and 5 cm length for a volume of 375 nL Flow in these devices is normally nonturbulent due to low Reynolds numbers For example, water flowing at 20°C in the above channel at 1 μL/min (222 cm/s) results in a Reynolds number of ~05, where <2000 is laminar flow Since flow is nonturbulent, mixing is normally diffusion-limited Small channel sizes also have a high surface-to-volume ratio, leading to different characteristics from what are commonly found in bulk volumes The material surface can be used to manipulate fluid movement (such as by electroosmotic flow, EOF) and surface interactions For a solution in contact with a charged surface, a double layer of charge is created as oppositely charged ions are attracted to the surface charges This electrical double layer consists of an inner rigid or Stern Layer and an outer diffuse layer An electrostatic potential known as the zeta potential is formed, with the magnitude of the potential decreasing as distance from the surface increases The electrical double layer is the basis for EOF, wherein an applied voltage causes the loosely bound diffuse layer to move towards an electrode, dragging the bulk solution along Charges on the exposed surface also exert a greater influence on the fluid in a channel as its size decreases Larger surface-to-volume ratios are more prone to nonspecific adsorption and surface fouling In particular, non-charged and hydrophobic microdevice surfaces can cause proteins in solution to denature and stick We focus our review on advances in microfluidic systems since 2008 In doing this, we occasionally must cover foundational work in microfluidics that is considerably less recent We do not focus on chemical synthesis applications of microfluidics although it is an expanding area, nor do we delve into lithography, device fabrication or production costs Our specific emphasis herein is on four areas within microfluidics: properties and applications of commonly used materials, basic functions, integration, and selected applications For each of these four topics we provide a concluding section on opportunities for future development, and at the end of this review, we offer general conclusions and prospective for future work in the field Due to the considerable scope of the field of microfluidics, we limit our discussion to selected examples from each area, but cite in-depth reviews for the reader to turn to for further information about specific topics We also refer the reader to recent comprehensive reviews on advances in lab-on-a-chip systems by Arora et al10 and Kovarik et al14
TL;DR: The generation of polymer brushes by surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization (SI-CRP) techniques has become a powerful approach to tailor the chemical and physical properties of interfaces and has given rise to great advances in surface and interface engineering as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The generation of polymer brushes by surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization (SI-CRP) techniques has become a powerful approach to tailor the chemical and physical properties of interfaces and has given rise to great advances in surface and interface engineering. Polymer brushes are defined as thin polymer films in which the individual polymer chains are tethered by one chain end to a solid interface. Significant advances have been made over the past years in the field of polymer brushes. This includes novel developments in SI-CRP, as well as the emergence of novel applications such as catalysis, electronics, nanomaterial synthesis and biosensing. Additionally, polymer brushes prepared via SI-CRP have been utilized to modify the surface of novel substrates such as natural fibers, polymer nanofibers, mesoporous materials, graphene, viruses and protein nanoparticles. The last years have also seen exciting advances in the chemical and physical characterization of polymer brushes, as well as an ev...