Author

# Johan A. K. Suykens

Other affiliations: University of California, Berkeley, Federico Santa María Technical University, iMinds ...read more

Bio: Johan A. K. Suykens is an academic researcher from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. The author has contributed to research in topics: Support vector machine & Least squares support vector machine. The author has an hindex of 79, co-authored 693 publications receiving 34482 citations. Previous affiliations of Johan A. K. Suykens include University of California, Berkeley & Federico Santa María Technical University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

More filters

••

TL;DR: A least squares version for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers that follows from solving a set of linear equations, instead of quadratic programming for classical SVM's.

Abstract: In this letter we discuss a least squares version for support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Due to equality type constraints in the formulation, the solution follows from solving a set of linear equations, instead of quadratic programming for classical SVM‘s. The approach is illustrated on a two-spiral benchmark classification problem.

8,811 citations

•

12 Nov 2002TL;DR: Support Vector Machines Basic Methods of Least Squares Support Vector Machines Bayesian Inference for LS-SVM Models Robustness Large Scale Problems LS- sVM for Unsupervised Learning LS- SVM for Recurrent Networks and Control.

Abstract: Support Vector Machines Basic Methods of Least Squares Support Vector Machines Bayesian Inference for LS-SVM Models Robustness Large Scale Problems LS-SVM for Unsupervised Learning LS-SVM for Recurrent Networks and Control.

2,983 citations

••

TL;DR: The methods of this paper are illustrated for RBF kernels and demonstrate how to obtain robust estimates with selection of an appropriate number of hidden units, in the case of outliers or non-Gaussian error distributions with heavy tails.

Abstract: Least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) is an SVM version which involves equality instead of inequality constraints and works with a least squares cost function. In this way, the solution follows from a linear Karush–Kuhn–Tucker system instead of a quadratic programming problem. However, sparseness is lost in the LS-SVM case and the estimation of the support values is only optimal in the case of a Gaussian distribution of the error variables. In this paper, we discuss a method which can overcome these two drawbacks. We show how to obtain robust estimates for regression by applying a weighted version of LS-SVM. We also discuss a sparse approximation procedure for weighted and unweighted LS-SVM. It is basically a pruning method which is able to do pruning based upon the physical meaning of the sorted support values, while pruning procedures for classical multilayer perceptrons require the computation of a Hessian matrix or its inverse. The methods of this paper are illustrated for RBF kernels and demonstrate how to obtain robust estimates with selection of an appropriate number of hidden units, in the case of outliers or non-Gaussian error distributions with heavy tails.

1,197 citations

••

TL;DR: It is found that both the LS-SVM and neural network classifiers yield a very good performance, but also simple classifiers such as logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis perform very well for credit scoring.

Abstract: In this paper, we study the performance of various state-of-the-art classification algorithms applied to eight real-life credit scoring data sets. Some of the data sets originate from major Benelux and UK financial institutions. Different types of classifiers are evaluated and compared. Besides the well-known classification algorithms (eg logistic regression, discriminant analysis, k-nearest neighbour, neural networks and decision trees), this study also investigates the suitability and performance of some recently proposed, advanced kernel-based classification algorithms such as support vector machines and least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVMs). The performance is assessed using the classification accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Statistically significant performance differences are identified using the appropriate test statistics. It is found that both the LS-SVM and neural network classifiers yield a very good performance, but also simple classifiers such as logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis perform very well for credit scoring.

906 citations

••

TL;DR: Both the SVM and LS-SVM classifier with RBF kernel in combination with standard cross-validation procedures for hyperparameter selection achieve comparable test set performances, consistently very good when compared to a variety of methods described in the literature.

Abstract: In Support Vector Machines (SVMs), the solution of the classification problem is characterized by a (convex) quadratic programming (QP) problem. In a modified version of SVMs, called Least Squares SVM classifiers (LS-SVMs), a least squares cost function is proposed so as to obtain a linear set of equations in the dual space. While the SVM classifier has a large margin interpretation, the LS-SVM formulation is related in this paper to a ridge regression approach for classification with binary targets and to Fisher's linear discriminant analysis in the feature space. Multiclass categorization problems are represented by a set of binary classifiers using different output coding schemes. While regularization is used to control the effective number of parameters of the LS-SVM classifier, the sparseness property of SVMs is lost due to the choice of the 2-norm. Sparseness can be imposed in a second stage by gradually pruning the support value spectrum and optimizing the hyperparameters during the sparse approximation procedure. In this paper, twenty public domain benchmark datasets are used to evaluate the test set performance of LS-SVM classifiers with linear, polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) kernels. Both the SVM and LS-SVM classifier with RBF kernel in combination with standard cross-validation procedures for hyperparameter selection achieve comparable test set performances. These SVM and LS-SVM performances are consistently very good when compared to a variety of methods described in the literature including decision tree based algorithms, statistical algorithms and instance based learning methods. We show on ten UCI datasets that the LS-SVM sparse approximation procedure can be successfully applied.

698 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

•

23 May 2011

TL;DR: It is argued that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas.

Abstract: Many problems of recent interest in statistics and machine learning can be posed in the framework of convex optimization. Due to the explosion in size and complexity of modern datasets, it is increasingly important to be able to solve problems with a very large number of features or training examples. As a result, both the decentralized collection or storage of these datasets as well as accompanying distributed solution methods are either necessary or at least highly desirable. In this review, we argue that the alternating direction method of multipliers is well suited to distributed convex optimization, and in particular to large-scale problems arising in statistics, machine learning, and related areas. The method was developed in the 1970s, with roots in the 1950s, and is equivalent or closely related to many other algorithms, such as dual decomposition, the method of multipliers, Douglas–Rachford splitting, Spingarn's method of partial inverses, Dykstra's alternating projections, Bregman iterative algorithms for l1 problems, proximal methods, and others. After briefly surveying the theory and history of the algorithm, we discuss applications to a wide variety of statistical and machine learning problems of recent interest, including the lasso, sparse logistic regression, basis pursuit, covariance selection, support vector machines, and many others. We also discuss general distributed optimization, extensions to the nonconvex setting, and efficient implementation, including some details on distributed MPI and Hadoop MapReduce implementations.

17,433 citations

••

[...]

TL;DR: Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis.

Abstract: Machine Learning is the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. However, there are many tasks for which this is difficult or impossible. These can be divided into four general categories. First, there are problems for which there exist no human experts. For example, in modern automated manufacturing facilities, there is a need to predict machine failures before they occur by analyzing sensor readings. Because the machines are new, there are no human experts who can be interviewed by a programmer to provide the knowledge necessary to build a computer system. A machine learning system can study recorded data and subsequent machine failures and learn prediction rules. Second, there are problems where human experts exist, but where they are unable to explain their expertise. This is the case in many perceptual tasks, such as speech recognition, hand-writing recognition, and natural language understanding. Virtually all humans exhibit expert-level abilities on these tasks, but none of them can describe the detailed steps that they follow as they perform them. Fortunately, humans can provide machines with examples of the inputs and correct outputs for these tasks, so machine learning algorithms can learn to map the inputs to the outputs. Third, there are problems where phenomena are changing rapidly. In finance, for example, people would like to predict the future behavior of the stock market, of consumer purchases, or of exchange rates. These behaviors change frequently, so that even if a programmer could construct a good predictive computer program, it would need to be rewritten frequently. A learning program can relieve the programmer of this burden by constantly modifying and tuning a set of learned prediction rules. Fourth, there are applications that need to be customized for each computer user separately. Consider, for example, a program to filter unwanted electronic mail messages. Different users will need different filters. It is unreasonable to expect each user to program his or her own rules, and it is infeasible to provide every user with a software engineer to keep the rules up-to-date. A machine learning system can learn which mail messages the user rejects and maintain the filtering rules automatically. Machine learning addresses many of the same research questions as the fields of statistics, data mining, and psychology, but with differences of emphasis. Statistics focuses on understanding the phenomena that have generated the data, often with the goal of testing different hypotheses about those phenomena. Data mining seeks to find patterns in the data that are understandable by people. Psychological studies of human learning aspire to understand the mechanisms underlying the various learning behaviors exhibited by people (concept learning, skill acquisition, strategy change, etc.).

13,246 citations

•

23 Nov 2005TL;DR: The treatment is comprehensive and self-contained, targeted at researchers and students in machine learning and applied statistics, and deals with the supervised learning problem for both regression and classification.

Abstract: A comprehensive and self-contained introduction to Gaussian processes, which provide a principled, practical, probabilistic approach to learning in kernel machines. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a principled, practical, probabilistic approach to learning in kernel machines. GPs have received increased attention in the machine-learning community over the past decade, and this book provides a long-needed systematic and unified treatment of theoretical and practical aspects of GPs in machine learning. The treatment is comprehensive and self-contained, targeted at researchers and students in machine learning and applied statistics. The book deals with the supervised-learning problem for both regression and classification, and includes detailed algorithms. A wide variety of covariance (kernel) functions are presented and their properties discussed. Model selection is discussed both from a Bayesian and a classical perspective. Many connections to other well-known techniques from machine learning and statistics are discussed, including support-vector machines, neural networks, splines, regularization networks, relevance vector machines and others. Theoretical issues including learning curves and the PAC-Bayesian framework are treated, and several approximation methods for learning with large datasets are discussed. The book contains illustrative examples and exercises, and code and datasets are available on the Web. Appendixes provide mathematical background and a discussion of Gaussian Markov processes.

11,357 citations

Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.

Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

••

6,278 citations