Bio: Johan Sigholm is an academic researcher from Swedish National Defence College. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Military technology & Network topology. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 19 publication(s) receiving 149 citation(s).
29 Aug 2009
TL;DR: The challenges ahead in creating new communication networks to support post-disaster operations are described, and they are set in the context of the current issues in protection of critical infrastructures.
Abstract: Disasters are characterised by their devastating effect on human lives and the society's ability to function. Unfortunately, rescue operations and the possibility to re-establish a working society after such events is often hampered by the lack of functioning communication infrastructures. This paper describes the challenges ahead in creating new communication networks to support post-disaster operations, and sets them in the context of the current issues in protection of critical infrastructures. The analysis reveals that while there are some common concerns there are also fundamental differences. The paper serves as an overview of some promising research directions and pointers to existing works in these areas.
01 Dec 2013
TL;DR: It is concluded that cyberspace is emerging as a new tool for state power that will likely reshape future warfare and is hard to precisely assess future effects, risks and potentials.
Abstract: The growing importance of cyberspace to modern society, and its increasing use as an arena for dispute, is becoming a national security concern for governments and armed forces globally. The special characteristics of cyberspace, such as its asymmetric nature, the lack of attribution, the low cost of entry, the legal ambiguity, and its role as an efficient medium for protest, crime, espionage and military aggression, makes it an attractive domain for nation-states as well as non-state actors in cyber conflict.This paper studies the various non-state actors who coexist in cyberspace, examines their motives and incitements, and analyzes how and when their objectives coincide with those of nation-states. Literature suggests that many nations are currently pursuing cyberwarfare capabilities, oftentimes by leveraging criminal organizations and irregular forces. Employment of such non-state actors as hacktivists, patriot hackers, and cybermilitia in state-on-state cyberspace operations has also proved to be a usable model for conducting cyberattacks. The paper concludes that cyberspace is emerging as a new tool for state power that will likely reshape future warfare. However, due to the lack of concrete cyberwarfare experience, and the limited encounters of legitimate cyberattacks, it is hard to precisely assess future effects, risks and potentials.
12 Aug 2013
TL;DR: A framework for offensive CCI based on technical tools and techniques for data mining, anomaly detection, and extensive sharing of cyber threat data is proposed and placed within the distinct context of military intelligence.
Abstract: Although the traditional strategies for cyber defense in use today are necessary to mitigate broad ranges of common threats, they are not well-suited to protect against a persistent antagonist with access to advanced system exploitation techniques and knowledge of existing but yet undiscovered software vulnerabilities. Addressing the threat caused by such antagonists requires a fast and offensive Cyber Counterintelligence (CCI) process, and a more efficient inter-organizational information exchange. This paper proposes a framework for offensive CCI based on technical tools and techniques for data mining, anomaly detection, and extensive sharing of cyber threat data. The framework is placed within the distinct context of military intelligence, in order to achieve a holistic, offensive and target-centric view of future CCI. The main contributions offered are (i) a comprehensive process that bridges the gap between the various actors involved in CCI, (ii) an applied technical architecture to support detection and identification of data leaks emanating from cyber espionage, and (iii) deduced intelligence community requirements.
01 Jan 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight the need for effective disaster response, mitigation and recovery as a high-priority task for governments and administrations in response to natural and man-made disasters.
Abstract: As natural and man-made disasters become increasingly common, ensuring effective disaster response, mitigation and recovery is growing into a high-priority task for governments and administrations ...
01 Oct 2012
TL;DR: Results show that common data leaks can be efficiently identified by the proposed scheme, while keeping the important false positive rate at a very low level.
Abstract: Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS), based on Software Defined Radio (SDR) and Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) technologies, offer considerable advantages for military operations, such as increased network survivability and interoperability. The RRS-based Common Tactical Radio System (GTRS), currently in development by the Swedish Armed Forces, is designed for use in diverse geographical settings and for purposes varying from international combat missions to national contingency operations. However, protecting these networks from attacks and safeguarding the carried information against leaks is an ongoing research challenge, especially in combined scenarios where tactical data may flow across organizational boundaries. This paper presents a best-effort approach to Data Leakage Prevention (DLP) for inter-organizational RRS-based networks. The proposed architecture makes use of data mining techniques and an efficient n-dimensional clustering algorithm which has previously been successfully used for real-time anomaly detection in critical infrastructure protection. The DLP architecture is developed as an extension to the GTRS system, modeled and simulated in OPNET™ Modeler. Our results show that common data leaks can be efficiently identified by the proposed scheme, while keeping the important false positive rate at a very low level.
TL;DR: The Commission's report really does add enormous amounts of history to the sound bites and 30-second visuals that have pervaded politics and the world assessment of the US since that time.
Abstract: Twenty-five years ago, as an American GP living and practising in Wales, I would watch BBC sports programmes, such as darts and bowls and snooker, all unknown to me and, therefore, fascinating. I always found it odd — pairings such as Scotland (or Wales) versus The Rest of the World. It either seemed overly ambitious for Scotland or slim pickings for the rest of the world. After the recent US presidential election, it appears as if it will continue to be the US versus The Rest of the World. Three books might help you, who are of ‘the rest of the world’, begin to grapple with what is going on in the US. Written from the short, medium, and long view, each has a somewhat parochial twist. Each also, however, contains a great deal of useful history. The 9/11 Commission Report refutes the old saw that nothing good can be written by a committee. The report is a remarkable book and its recent nomination as a finalist for the National Book Award is a first for a government document, and well deserved. What is contained in this report is well known by most of us — the cast of characters has been in the news for over 3 years. And the sequence of events and many of the details that were gleaned from the ongoing hearings have been contained in news stories, long and short. However, to have published what is known until this point in a single narrative, which is at once accessible and clearly written, is a truly historical achievement. Reading the events of the day — regarding the planes that crashed in the city of New York, as the rescue squads from police and fire departments move into place and act — is both familiar and detailed in a way that helps us understand better than I would ever have imagined the why and how of all the death and destruction. So much about those days have been parsed into documentaries — long analyses of causation of issues, like why the towers fell — that one would think that everything that could be written had been. But the Commission's report really does add enormous amounts of history to the sound bites and 30-second visuals that have pervaded politics and the world assessment of the US since that time. The report deals extensively and thoughtfully with the history of Islam, both ancient and recent, and describes the history of terrorism as it evolved from highjackings of the 1970s to the use of bombs and targeted destruction of military targets in the late 1980s and 1990s. Events that occurred in the time that preceded the attacks of 9/11 are written in a way that shows the convergence of intelligence reports, a long history of threats from Bin Laden, and many alerts and warnings (‘the system was blinking red’ in the words of Tenet, CIA director). The information about the movements of the terrorists in their planning and the worldwide involvement of cells, support systems, and finances makes it clear that these events were truly the result of a network that reaches virtually everywhere. After the attacks, reading of the efforts of the fire, police, and other rescue squads in New York adds specifics that are terrible and remarkable. On 9/11, I ran up and down the stairs between patients to watch on television as it was all happening. All of us who watched that day wondered what those people who were clearly doomed were thinking, feeling, and seeing. Their actual words in this report are not fiction, they are the words, for most the last words, of people who died as we watched. Their words are the hardest part of this long, detailed report to deal with. Much of the final third of the report is devoted to what a fire captain friend of mine once called a PFE — a post-fire evaluation — which he mandated for his squad after every fire. In a PFE, the entire squad reconstructed, relived, and discussed the events to see what could be improved next time. The 9/11 Commission engaged in a world-scale PFE. Although all US politicians state that they intend to follow the recommendations of The 9/11 Commission Report, the backing and filling is already well underway. What politician, for example, is going to agree that major conurbations, and political and tactical targets should receive preference over their hometown fire departments and that homeland security money should ‘not be used as a pork barrel’? Rather than bringing a grieving country together in a way that will make such events unlikely to happen again, the reactions from the report have begun to cleave along party lines once again. The 9/11 Commission was almost unique in its thoroughness, transparency, and its ability to focus on the real issue of terror and lawlessness. However, the extent to which a violent stateless ideology has negatively affected the tolerance of differences, the sense of community, and the level of civic discourse in the US means that terrorism has affected our neighborhoods as much as it has affected our country. And fear rather than determination, despite the President's stump speech, has become the dominant emotion. Robert Byrd, from his 45-year perspective in the US Senate, understands that cheques and balances are essential to avoid tragedy, even if they, at times, impede progress. His book, Losing America, contains several ‘under-the-table’ looks at Congress and the manipulations and arrogance of the coterie of ideologues who surround George W. Bush. Byrd, from the Southern tradition of politeness and respect, which often cloaks bar-room politics, is steeped in the history of the institution of the Senate. He is personally offended by Bush's lack of interest or curiosity in the legislative process prior to 9/11, and his dishonesty and deception afterwards. Byrd's address to the Senate on the eve of the war on Iraq was widely quoted and is contained in this book. While people marching in the streets made headlines, it was an 85-year-old senator, not previously known as an outraged progressive, who took on both the Administration for its hypocrisy and many of his colleagues for their lack of courage and principle. He voted against the war and continues to point out the dishonesty of the people who guide it. The book reads with a sensibility from another age. Although his own history is certainly not without problems, Senator Byrd's belief in the true democratic process, rather than the gun-barrel approach of George W. Bush, should be given the respect that he, and it, deserve. Arthur Schlesinger Jr has been writing history since 1946 and has Pulitzer prizes to prove he does it well. His voice is considered, thoughtful, and scholarly — as one might expect from a historian and distinguished teacher. Toward the end of his book War and the American Presidency, however, Schlesinger's voice rises with outrage at those who surround and influence George W. Bush, the ‘small group of Messianic statesman whose self righteousness bids fair to wreck our age’. He writes of the imperial presidencies of the early years of the country, which repressed dissent during wartime, and how the US moved from wars based on pique to engaging international diplomacy and internationalism. Schlesinger reminds us that all presidents since Wilson, with George W. Bush being the glaring exception, believed in statesmanship, diplomacy, alliances to guard against capricious choices and, when necessary, taking on common enemies. Much of Schlesinger's book, however, also chronicles the record of the current Administration which, by being ‘judge, jury, and executioner resurrects the imperial presidency’. An imperial presidency in the age of frigates and single-shot rifles cannot be compared with one that possesses weapons of mass destruction and a wooly-headed sense of divine guidance. We used to think of Henry Kissinger as the prototype for Dr Strangelove, but I wish Kubrick were still alive to do the remake with Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld in mind. Needless to say, the recent election, instead of relegating George W. Bush and his hangers-on to the historical trashbin, has pushed them to the front of the international agenda. A secretive, defensive, unreflective president will now shape the world for our grandchildren. Each of these books elaborates on the ineffectiveness of Bush dealing with the real enemy while he digs deeper into a country where he is creating more enemies by the day. One has to ask why, instead of quietly writing their memoirs, two distinguished 87-year-old statesmen are raising the alarm and shaking us by the throat — like the aging Thomas Jefferson who, in his famous letter of 1820, said of the first compromise to try to divide the country between slave and free states: ‘this momentous question, like a firebell in the night, awakened and filled me with terror’. Byrd and Schlesinger hear the firebell and are ringing it to wake us up. Another quote that might better capture Bush and his legacy would be from the Bible he uses as justification for his policies: ‘He that troubleth his own house shall inherit the wind’ (Proverbs 11, 29).
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: By J. Biggs and C. Tang, Maidenhead, England; Open University Press, 2007.
Abstract: by J. Biggs and C. Tang, Maidenhead, England, Open University Press, 2007, 360 pp., £29.99, ISBN-13: 978-0-335-22126-4
TL;DR: This paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research by publishing the source code and the datasets, and reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time.
Abstract: Anomaly detection is the process of identifying unexpected items or events in datasets, which differ from the norm. In contrast to standard classification tasks, anomaly detection is often applied on unlabeled data, taking only the internal structure of the dataset into account. This challenge is known as unsupervised anomaly detection and is addressed in many practical applications, for example in network intrusion detection, fraud detection as well as in the life science and medical domain. Dozens of algorithms have been proposed in this area, but unfortunately the research community still lacks a comparative universal evaluation as well as common publicly available datasets. These shortcomings are addressed in this study, where 19 different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms are evaluated on 10 different datasets from multiple application domains. By publishing the source code and the datasets, this paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research. Additionally, this evaluation reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time. Besides the anomaly detection performance, computational effort, the impact of parameter settings as well as the global/local anomaly detection behavior is outlined. As a conclusion, we give an advise on algorithm selection for typical real-world tasks.
TL;DR: An introductory overview of Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks is provided and some special issues like routing are addressed in the paper and an introductory description of applications and the most important projects is given.
Abstract: This paper provides an introductory overview of Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks. First, an introduction to Delay-Tolerant Networks and Vehicular Delay-Tolerant Networks is given. Delay-Tolerant schemes and protocols can help in situations where network connectivity is sparse or with large variations in density, or even when there is no end-to-end connectivity by providing a communications solution for non real-time applications. Some special issues like routing are addressed in the paper and an introductory description of applications and the most important projects is given. Finally, some research challenges are discussed and conclusions are detailed.
01 Jan 2014-Information Fusion
TL;DR: A VDTN routing protocol, called GeoSpray, which takes routing decisions based on geographical location data, and combines a hybrid approach between multiple-copy and single-copy schemes, and improves significantly the delivery probability and reduces the delivery delay.
Abstract: Vehicular networks are characterized by a highly dynamic network topology, and disruptive and intermittent connectivity. In such network environments, a complete path from source to destination does not exist on the most part of the time. Vehicular delay-tolerant network (VDTN) architecture was introduced to deal with these connectivity constraints. VDTN assumes asynchronous, bundle-oriented communication, and a store-carry-and-forward routing paradigm. A routing protocol for VDTNs should make the best use of the tight resources available in network nodes to create a multi-hop path that exists over time. This paper proposes a VDTN routing protocol, called GeoSpray, which takes routing decisions based on geographical location data, and combines a hybrid approach between multiple-copy and single-copy schemes. First, it starts with a multiple-copy scheme, spreading a limited number of bundle copies, in order to exploit alternative paths. Then, it switches to a forwarding scheme, which takes advantage of additional contact opportunities. In order to improve resources utilization, it clears delivered bundles across the network nodes. It is shown that GeoSpray improves significantly the delivery probability and reduces the delivery delay, compared to traditional location and non location-based single-copy and multiple-copy routing protocols.