John L. Monteith
Other affiliations: Goddard Space Flight Center, University of Nottingham, Imperial College London ...read more
Bio: John L. Monteith is an academic researcher from International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Atmosphere & Transpiration. The author has an hindex of 58, co-authored 138 publication(s) receiving 30024 citation(s). Previous affiliations of John L. Monteith include Goddard Space Flight Center & University of Nottingham.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Aug 1980-Journal of Applied Ecology
TL;DR: Progress towards a reconciliation of parallel concepts in meteorology and physiology is described, which stresses the importance of physiological restraint on the rate of transpiration from an irrigated field surrounded by dry land.
Abstract: A turgid leaf exposed to bright sunshine can transpire an amount of water several times its own weight during a summer day. Rapid evaporation is sustained by a supply of heat from the atmosphere and by a movement of water within the plant preventing the desiccation of leaf tissue. In analysis, the need for energy and the need for water have often been disassociated. Meteorologists investigating the energetics of transpiration have assumed that leaves behave like pieces of wet, green blotting paper, and plant physiologists have demonstrated mechanisms for the conduction of water at arbitrary rates unrelated to the physics of the environment. This paper describes progress towards a reconciliation of parallel concepts in meteorology and physiology. The path for the diffusion of water vapour from leaf cells to the free atmosphere is divided into two parts, one determined primarily by the size and distribution of stomata, and the other by wind speed and the aerodynamic properties of the plant surface. Diffusive resistances for single leaves and for plant communities are established from measurements in the laboratory and in the field and are then used: (i) to predict relative rates of evaporation from leaves with wet and dry surfaces; (ii) to investigate the dependence of transpiration rate on wind speed and surface roughness; (iii) to demonstrate that the relation between transpiration rate and lead area is governed by stomatal closure in leaves well shaded from sunlight; (iv) to calculate maximum rates of transpiration for different crops and climates. A final section on the convection of dry air stresses the importance of physiological restraint on the rate of transpiration from an irrigated field surrounded by dry land.
01 Mar 1974-Physics Today
TL;DR: In this paper, the second edition of the Second edition, the authors present a list of symbolic symbols for the field of environmental physical sciences, including the following: 1.GAS LAWS Pressure, volume and temperature Specific heats Lapse rate Water and water vapour Other gases 3. TRANSPORT LAWS General transfer equation Molecular transfer processes Diffusion coefficients Radiation laws 4. RADI ENVIRONMENT Solar radiation Terrestrial radiation Net radiation 5. MICROCLIMATOLOGY OF RADIATION (i) Interception Direct solar radiation Diffuse radiation Radiation in
Abstract: PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION LIST OF SYMBOLS 1. SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS 2. GAS LAWS Pressure, volume and temperature Specific heats Lapse rate Water and water vapour Other gases 3. TRANSPORT LAWS General transfer equation Molecular transfer processes Diffusion coefficients Radiation laws 4. RADIATION ENVIRONMENT Solar radiation Terrestrial radiation Net radiation 5. MICROCLIMATOLOGY OF RADIATION (i) Interception Direct solar radiation Diffuse radiation Radiation in crop canopies 6. MICROCLIMATOLOGY OF RADIATION (ii) Absorption and reflection Radiative properties of natural materials Net radiation 7. MOMENTUM TRANSFER Boundary layers Wind profiles and drag on uniform surfaces Lodging and windthrow 8. HEAT TRANSFER Convection Non-dimensional groups Measurements of convection Conduction Insulation of animals 9. MASS TRANSFER (i) Gases and water vapour Non-dimensional groups Measurement of mass transfer Ventilation Mass transfer through pores Coats and clothing 10.MASS TRANSFER (ii) Particles Steady motion 11.STEADY STATE HEAT BALANCE (i) Water surfaces and vegetation Heat balance equation Heat balance of thermometers Heat balance of surfaces Developments from the Penman Equation 12.STEADY STATE HEAT BALANCE (ii) Animals Heat balance components The thermo-neutral diagram Specification of the environment Case studies 13.TRANSIENT HEAT BALANCE Time constant General cases Heat flow in soil 14.CROP MICROMETEOROLOGY (i) Profiles and fluxes Profiles Profile equations and stability Measurement of flux above the canopy 15.CROP MICROMETEOROLOGY (ii) Interpretation of measurements Resistance analogues Case studies: Water vapour and transpiration Carbon dioxide and growth Sulphur dioxide and pollutant fluxes to crops Transport within canopies APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCES INDEX
TL;DR: The efficiency of crop production is defined in thermodynamic terms as the ratio of energy output (carbohydrate) to energy input (solar radiation). Temperature and water supply are the main climatic constraints on efficiency as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The efficiency of crop production is defined in thermodynamic terms as the ratio of energy output (carbohydrate) to energy input (solar radiation). Temperature and water supply are the main climatic constraints on efficiency. Over most of Britain, the radiation and thermal climates are uniform and rainfall is the main discriminant of yield between regions. Total production of dry matter by barley, potatoes, sugar beet, and apples is strongly correlated with intercepted radiation and these crops form carbohydrate at about 1.4 g per MJ solar energy, equivalent to 2.4% efficiency. Crop growth in Britain may therefore be analysed in terms of ( a ) the amount of light intercepted during the growing season and ( b ) the efficiency with which intercepted light is used. The amount intercepted depends on the seasonal distribution of leaf area which, in turn, depends on temperature and soil water supply. These variables are discussed in terms of the rate and duration of development phases. A factorial analysis of efficiency shows that the major arable crops in Britain intercept only about 40 % of annual solar radiation and their efficiency for supplying energy through economic yield is only about 0.3%. Some of the factors responsible for this figure are well understood and some are immutable. More work is needed to identify the factors responsible for the large differences between average commercial and record yields.
01 Dec 1972-Journal of Applied Ecology
TL;DR: Conventional estimates of efficiency in terms of the amount of solar radiation incident at the earth's surface provide ecologists and agronomists with a method for comparing plant productivity under different systems of land use and management and in different * Opening paper read at IBP/UNESCO Meeting on Productivity of Tropical Ecosystems.
Abstract: In thermodynamic terms, ecosystems are machines supplied with energy from an external source, usually the sun. When the input of energy to an ecosystem is exactly equal to its total output of energy, the state of equilibrium which exists is a special case of the First Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law is relevant too. It implies that in every spontaneous process, physical or chemical, the production of 'useful' energy, which could be harnessed in a form such as mechanical work, must be accompanied by a simultaneous 'waste' of heat. No biological system can break or evade this law. The heat produced by a respiring cell is an inescapable component of cellular metabolism, the cost which Nature has to pay for creating biological order out of physical chaos in the environment of plants and animals. Dividing the useful energy of a thermodynamic process by the total energy involved gives a figure for the efficiency of the process, and this procedure has been widely used to analyse the flow of energy in ecosystems. For example, the efficiency with which a stand of plants produces dry matter by photosynthesis can be defined as the ratio of chemical energy stored in the assimilates to radiant energy absorbed by foliage during the period of assimilation. The choice of absorbed energy as a base for calculating efficiency is convenient but arbitrary. To derive an efficiency depending on the environment of a particular site as well as oil the nature of the vegetation, dry matter production can be related to the receipt of solar energy at the top of the earth's atmosphere. This exercise was attempted by Professor William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, in 1852. 'The author estimates the mechanical value of the solar heat which, were none of it absorbed by the atmosphere, would fall annually on each square foot of land, at 530 000 000 foot pounds; and infers that probably a good deal more, 1/1000 of the solar heat, which actually falls on growing plants, is converted into mechanical effect.' Outside the earth's atmosphere, a surface kept at right angles to the sun's rays receives energy at a mean rate of 1360 W m-2 or 1f36 kJ m-2 s-1, a figure known as the solar constant. As the energy stored by plants is about 17 kJ per gram of dry matter, the solar constant is equivalent to the production of dry matter at a rate of about 1 g m-2 every 12 s, 7 kg m-2 per day, or 2 6 t m-2 year-'. The annual yield of agricultural crops ranges from a maximum of 30-60 t ha-' in field experiments to less than I t ha-' in some forms of subsistence farming. When these rates are expressed as a fraction of the integrated solar constant, the efficiencies of agricultural systems lie between 0-2 and 0 004%, a range including Kelvin's estimate of 0-1%. Conventional estimates of efficiency in terms of the amount of solar radiation incident at the earth's surface provide ecologists and agronomists with a method for comparing plant productivity under different systems of land use and management and in different * Opening paper read at IBP/UNESCO Meeting on Productivity of Tropical Ecosystems, Makerere University, Uganda, September 1970.
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: In this paper, an updated procedure for calculating reference and crop evapotranspiration from meteorological data and crop coefficients is presented, based on the FAO Penman-Monteith method.
Abstract: (First edition: 1998, this reprint: 2004). This publication presents an updated procedure for calculating reference and crop evapotranspiration from meteorological data and crop coefficients. The procedure, first presented in FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 24, Crop water requirements, in 1977, allows estimation of the amount of water used by a crop, taking into account the effect of the climate and the crop characteristics. The publication incorporates advances in research and more accurate procedures for determining crop water use as recommended by a panel of high-level experts organised by FAO in May 1990. The first part of the guidelines includes procedures for determining reference crop evapotranspiration according to the FAO Penman-Monteith method. These are followed by updated procedures for estimating the evapotranspiration of different crops for different growth stages and ecological conditions.
TL;DR: A conceptual, continuous time model called SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was developed to assist water resource managers in assessing the impact of management on water supplies and nonpoint source pollution in watersheds and large river basins as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A conceptual, continuous time model called SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was developed to assist water resource managers in assessing the impact of management on water supplies and nonpoint source pollution in watersheds and large river basins. The model is currently being utilized in several large area projects by EPA, NOAA, NRCS and others to estimate the off-site impacts of climate and management on water use, nonpoint source loadings, and pesticide contamination. Model development, operation, limitations, and assumptions are discussed and components of the model are described. In Part II, a GIS input/output interface is presented along with model validation on three basins within the Upper Trinity basin in Texas.
01 Aug 1980-Journal of Applied Ecology
TL;DR: Integrating conceptually similar models of the growth of marine and terrestrial primary producers yielded an estimated global net primary production of 104.9 petagrams of carbon per year, with roughly equal contributions from land and oceans.
Abstract: Integrating conceptually similar models of the growth of marine and terrestrial primary producers yielded an estimated global net primary production (NPP) of 104.9 petagrams of carbon per year, with roughly equal contributions from land and oceans. Approaches based on satellite indices of absorbed solar radiation indicate marked heterogeneity in NPP for both land and oceans, reflecting the influence of physical and ecological processes. The spatial and temporal distributions of ocean NPP are consistent with primary limitation by light, nutrients, and temperature. On land, water limitation imposes additional constraints. On land and ocean, progressive changes in NPP can result in altered carbon storage, although contrasts in mechanisms of carbon storage and rates of organic matter turnover result in a range of relations between carbon storage and changes in NPP.
01 Jan 1995