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John N. Kanamitie

Bio: John N. Kanamitie is an academic researcher from University of Ghana. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mathematics education & Lymphatic filariasis. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 6 citations.

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TL;DR: A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections and formulate appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission.
Abstract: Objective Mass drug Administration (MDA) for the control of Lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Ghana, started in the year 2000. While this had great success in many implementation units, there remain areas with persistent transmission, after more than 10 years of treatment. A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections, and formulatingn appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission. Materials and Methods In a longitudinal study, we assessed the prevalence of microfilaraemia (mf) in two communities with 12 years of MDA in Ghana. In baseline surveys 6 months after the National MDA in 2014, 370 consenting individuals were tested for antigenaemia using immunochromatographic test (ICT) cards, and had their mf count determined through night blood surveys. 48 ICT positives, of whom 17 were positive for mf, were treated with 400 μg/kg ivermectin + 400 mg albendazole and subsequently followed for parasitological assessment at 3-month intervals for 1 year. This overlapped with the National MDA in 2015. Results There was a 68% parasite clearance 3 months after treatment. The pre-treatment mf count differed significantly from the post-treatment mf counts at 3 months (p = 0.0023), 6 months (p = 0.0051), 9 months (p = 0.0113) and 12 months (p = 0.0008). Conclusion In these settings with persistent LF transmission, twice-yearly treatment may help accelerate LF elimination. Further large-scale evaluations are required to ascertain these findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to assess the degree of correlation between English language proficiency and academic accomplishment in Biology.
Abstract: English language is used as the medium of teaching in Ghanaian schools from Basic to the tertiary levels. Students at all stages of education are taught the content of school subjects through the use of the English language. As a result, how well students perform academically is mainly determined by their proficiency in English language. This paper therefore examined the relationship between English language proficiency and academic performance in Biology. The study employed a hybrid of ex-post facto and correlational research designs to determine the extent at which science students’ performance in English language correlates with their academic performance in Biology. Secondary data in the form of Terminal examination scores and 2019 West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) results in English language and Biology were analysed for 157 science students in four selected Senior High Schools in the Central and Western Regions. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to assess the degree of correlation between English language proficiency and academic accomplishment in Biology. The study observed that there was a positive correlation (r = 0.379, 0.479, 0.443 and 0.345) between English language performance and academic achievement in Biology in the terminal examination scores. The WASSCE scores revealed a positive and strong correlation (r = 0.825, 0.719) between English language and Biology. Based on these findings, it was recommended that since English language is extensively used in education as a whole, science teachers should teach language across the curriculum. That is, they must lay special emphasis on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) when the need arises.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the global burden and distribution of LF, causative agents of human filariasis, life cycle of the parasite, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and control of LF.
Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease has currently infected at least 51 million individuals globally, disfigured and incapacitated about 36 million and placed over 882 million people at risk of infection. It is a painful and profoundly disfiguring disease that can lead to permanent disability. Victims of the disease do not only manifest physical disability, but suffer psychological, social and financial losses leading to stigmatisation and poverty. Regardless of the fact that LF has burdened the majority of individuals in endemic regions for many years, evidence shows that the disease has been poorly understood and its medical importance underestimated. For the past two decades or so, since the launching of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by World Health Organization (WHO), there has been an avalanche of research works on the disease. This paper aims to provide a systematic and insightful review of the disease. The paper therefore provides a comprehensive outline of the global burden and distribution of LF, causative agents of human filariasis, life cycle of the parasite, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and control of LF.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the impacts of undiagnosed and untreated LF on the lives of potentially active and productive men and women and explore the impact that awareness of local health and sociocultural norms and values can have on improving primary and secondary LF control efforts.
Abstract: Introduction Lymphatic filariasis (LF), the second most common vector-borne parasitic disease after malaria, is found in over 80 tropical and subtropical countries WHO estimates that 120 million people are infected with the parasite, with one billion at risk These figures are certain to be revised upwards because global prevalence mapping has not yet been completed (1) According to WHO, LF is the second most common cause of long-term disability after mental illness (2,3) One-third of people infected with LF live in India, a third live in Africa and the remainder live in the Americas, the Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea and South-East Asia While not explicitly mentioned in the Millennium Development Goals, LF and other neglected tropical diseases are recognized in the report on the Commission for Africa as contributing significantly to the overall African disease burden (4) LF and other helminthic diseases leave infected individuals, particularly women and children, more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria (5) LF causes a wide spectrum of clinical and subclinical disease Approximately two-thirds of infected individuals show no overt evidence of disease, but when tested demonstrate some degree of parasite-associated immunosuppression, and many show evidence of renal dysfunction The remaining third surfer from the chronic manifestations of LF--chronic lymphoedema, elephantiasis and hydrocele Further, those infected with LF surfer the debilitating effect of acute filarial attacks that last from rive to seven days and may occur two to three times each year (1-3) Chronic filarial disease has serious social and economic effects Those afflicted with elephantiasis and hydrocele are often socially marginalized and poor Acute attacks and chronic disability cut economic output and increase poverty (1,3) In 1997, a World Health Assembly resolution called for the elimination of LE Public health interventions thus far have focused on interrupting the transmission of the parasite through the use of mass drug administration campaigns (MDAs) The MDA programmes deliver community-wide doses of diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, or albendazole and ivermectin, once annually for a period of four to six years (3,6,7) Although substantial progress has been recorded wherever the strategy has been implemented, initial gains have been accompanied by the realization that an intervention that assumes compliance will not alone ensure a permanent solution in many settings Even in areas where LF prevalence has been reduced to less than 1% of the population, elimination remains elusive and in some situations the disease has resurged (8,9) We argue that these "upstream" interventions could deliver more effectively "downstream" at community level if the programmes were more firmly grounded in sociocultural awareness during the planning stages This paper explores the disparity between the way the disease is defined at the elimination programme planning stages and the way it is defined and perceived in the diverse communities where it is implemented We describe the impacts of undiagnosed and untreated LF on the lives of potentially active and productive men and women and explore the impact that awareness of local health and sociocultural norms and values can have on improving primary and secondary LF control efforts Impact on infected individuals Current knowledge about LF's sociocultural burden The chronic manifestations of filariasis can have significant, and often very negative, social impacts (7,10,11) The chronic disabling manifestations of this disease, including lymphoedema of the limbs, breasts and external genitalia, have a profoundly detrimental effect on the quality of life of affected individuals The degree of social disability varies between cultural settings, but the degree of stigmatization appears to be directly correlated with the severity of visible disease …

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of the epidemiology of LF in three adjoining districts that have received at least 16 years of MDA in Ghana suggests that low-level transmission within the districts will require targeted interventions in order to eliminate the infection.
Abstract: Ghana has been implementing mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin and albendazole for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis (LF) since the year 2000, as part of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF). It was estimated that 5⁻6 years of treatment would be sufficient to eliminate the disease. Tremendous progress has been made over the years, and treatment has stopped in many disease endemic districts. However, despite the successful implementation of MDA, there are districts with persistent transmission. In this study we assessed the epidemiology of LF in three adjoining districts that have received at least 16 years of MDA. The assessments were undertaken one year after the last MDA. 1234 adults and 182 children below the age of 10 years were assessed. The overall prevalence of circulating filarial antigen in the study participants was 8.3% (95% CI: 6.9⁻9.9), with an estimated microfilaria prevalence of 1.2%. The microfilarial intensity in positive individuals ranged from 1 to 57 microfilariae/mL of blood. Higher antigen prevalence was detected in males (13.0%; 95% CI: 10.3⁻16.2) compared to females (5.5%; 95% CI: 4.1⁻7.2). The presence of infection was also highest in individuals involved in outdoor commercial activities, with the risks of infection being four- to five-fold higher among farmers, fishermen, drivers and artisans, compared to all other occupations. Using bednets or participating in MDA did not significantly influence the risk of infection. No children below the age of 10 years were found with infection. Detection of Wb123 antibodies for current infections indicated a prevalence of 14.4% (95% CI: 8.1⁻23.0) in antigen-positive individuals above 10 years of age. No antibodies were detected in children 10 years or below. Assessment of infection within the An. gambiae vectors of LF indicated an infection rate of 0.9% (95% CI: 0.3⁻2.1) and infectivity rate of 0.5% (95% CI: 0.1⁻1.6). These results indicate low-level transmission within the districts, and suggest that it will require targeted interventions in order to eliminate the infection.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that SILAC quantitative proteomics is an effective method to analyze ivermectin-treated cells, provide the first iVermect in-related proteomic profiling and molecular network alterations in human OC cells, and provide deeper insights into molecular mechanisms and functions of iverMectin to inhibit OC cells.
Abstract: The antiparasitic agent ivermectin offers more promises to treat a diverse range of diseases. However, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of ivermectin-treated ovarian cancer (OC) cells has not been performed. This study sought to identify ivermectin-related proteomic profiling and molecular network alterations in human OC cells. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics was used to study the human OC TOV-21G cells. After TOV-21G cells underwent 10 passages in SILAC-labeled growth media, TOV-21G cells were treated with 10 ml of 20 μmol/L ivermectin in cell growing medium for 24 h. The SILAC-labeled proteins were digested with trypsin; tryptic peptides were identified with mass spectrometry (MS). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was used to mine signaling pathway alterations with ivermectin-related proteins in TOV-21G cells. Gene ontology (GO) analysis was used to explore biological functions of ivermectin-related proteins, including biological processes (BPs), cellular components (CCs), and molecular functions (MFs). The protein-protein interaction network was analyzed with molecular complex detection (MCODE) to identify hub modules. In total, 4,447 proteins were identified in ivermectin-treated TOV-21G cells. KEGG analysis revealed 89 statistically significant signaling pathways. Interestingly, the clustering analysis of these pathways showed that ivermectin was involved in various cancer pathogenesis processes, including modulation of replication, RNA metabolism, and translational machinery. GO analysis revealed 69 statistically significant CCs, 87 MFs, and 62 BPs. Furthermore, MCODE analysis identified five hub modules, including 147 hub molecules. Those hub modules involved ribosomal proteins, RNA-binding proteins, cell-cycle progression-related proteins, proteasome subunits, and minichromosome maintenance proteins. These findings demonstrate that SILAC quantitative proteomics is an effective method to analyze ivermectin-treated cells, provide the first ivermectin-related proteomic profiling and molecular network alterations in human OC cells, and provide deeper insights into molecular mechanisms and functions of ivermectin to inhibit OC cells.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Assessment of W. bancrofti infection in mosquitoes as a post-MDA surveillance tool using xenomonitoring in Ghana concluded that whilst samples extracted with Trizol reagent did not show any positives, molecular methods should still be considered for monitoring and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis transmission.
Abstract: Mass drug administration (MDA) is the current mainstay to interrupt the transmission of lymphatic filariasis. To monitor whether MDA is effective and transmission of lymphatic filariasis indeed has been interrupted, rigorous surveillance is required. Assessment of transmission by programme managers is usually done via serology. New research suggests that xenomonitoring holds promise for determining the success of lymphatic filariasis interventions. The objective of this study was to assess Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes as a post-MDA surveillance tool using xenomonitoring. The study was carried out in four districts of Ghana; Ahanta West, Mpohor, Kassena Nankana West and Bongo. A suite of mosquito sampling methods was employed, including human landing collections, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps. Infection of W. bancrofti in mosquitoes was determined using dissection, conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction and loop mediated isothermal amplification assays. Aedes, Anopheles coustani, An. gambiae, An. pharoensis, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes were sampled in each of the four study districts. The dissected mosquitoes were positive for filarial infection using molecular assays. Dissected An. melas mosquitoes from Ahanta West district were the only species found positive for filarial parasites. We conclude that whilst samples extracted with Trizol reagent did not show any positives, molecular methods should still be considered for monitoring and surveillance of lymphatic filariasis transmission.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Oct 2017-Trials
TL;DR: This study seeks to test the hypothesis that biannual treatment of LF-endemic communities will accelerate the interruption of LF in areas of persistent transmission and add to the existing evidence on the need for alternative intervention strategies for the elimination of LF.
Abstract: The Global Programme for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) has been in operation since the year 2000, with the aim of eliminating the disease by the year 2020, following five to six rounds of effective annual mass drug administration (MDA). The treatment regimen is ivermectin (IVM) in combination with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or albendazole (ALB). In Ghana, MDA has been undertaken since 2001. While the disease has been eliminated in many areas, transmission has persisted in some implementation units that had experienced 15 or more rounds of MDA. Thus, new intervention strategies could eliminate residual infection in areas of persistent transmission and speed up the lymphatic filariasis (LF)-elimination process. This study, therefore, seeks to test the hypothesis that biannual treatment of LF-endemic communities will accelerate the interruption of LF in areas of persistent transmission. A cluster randomised trial will be implemented in LF-endemic communities in Ghana. The interventions will be yearly or twice-yearly MDA delivered to entire endemic communities. Allocation to study group will be by clusters identified using the prevalence of LF. Clusters will be randomised to one of two groups: receiving either (1) annual treatment with IVM + ALB or (2) annual MDA with IVM + ALB, followed by an additional MDA 6 months later. The primary outcome measure is the prevalence of LF infection, assessed by four cross-sectional surveys. Entomological assessments will also be undertaken to evaluate the transmission intensity of the disease in the study clusters. Costs and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Among a random subsample of participants, microfilaria prevalence will be assessed longitudinally. A nested process evaluation, using semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and a stakeholder analysis, will investigate the community acceptability, feasibility and scale-up of each delivery system. It is expected that this study will add to the existing evidence on the need for alternative intervention strategies for the elimination of LF in Ghana and in other African countries that are facing similar challenges or are at the beginning of their LF-elimination programmes. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03036059 . Registered on 26 January 2017. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, ID: PACTR201702002012425 . Registered on 23 February 2017.

6 citations