scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

John Nicholas Borton

Bio: John Nicholas Borton is an academic researcher from University of Manchester. The author has contributed to research in topics: Humanitarian aid & Salience (language). The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 28 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conclude the special issue on the history of humanitarian aid by reflecting on the role of memory and history in relation to humanitarian aid, arguing that the humanitarian sector has grown and aged and professionalized and institutionalized.
Abstract: This article concludes the special issue on the history of humanitarian aid by reflecting on the role of memory and history in relation to humanitarian aid. To address a special issue as a conclusion is to embrace the opportunity to reflect on its papers, aims and ambitions. It is also for us an opportunity to reflect on the role history has for a community of practice often forging ahead in response to the latest demands and emergencies. Historical thinking is now coming into greater salience for the world of humanitarian aid because, we argue, the ‘humanitarian sector’ has grown and aged – and professionalized and institutionalized.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that to a significant degree, the humanitarian sector is ahistorical and locked into a state of "perpetual present" and identify two principal obstacles to the greater use of historical knowledge within the present-day humanitarian sector are identified as the limited accessibility of the available literature on humanitarian history and the perceptions that the work of humanitarian historians is of limited relevance.
Abstract: This article challenges the often implicit assumption by historians working on humanitarian history that their work is being read and used by present-day humanitarian workers. Key characteristics of the modern-day humanitarian sector are highlighted, including the unpredictable and often inadequate levels of funding, stressful working conditions and high staff turnover. The article argues that, to a significant degree, the humanitarian sector is ahistorical and locked into a state of ‘perpetual present’. Two principal obstacles to the greater use of historical knowledge within the present-day humanitarian sector are identified as being the limited accessibility of the available literature on humanitarian history and the perceptions that the work of humanitarian historians is of limited relevance. The paper concludes by describing recent initiatives including the planned humanitarianhistory.org website which is intended to improve the accessibility of the available literature and facilitate engagem...

10 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Mark Duffield Cambridge, Polity Press, 2007, 278 pp, including references and index, ISBN 978-0-7456-3580-4 (pbk), £18.99, €25.70 as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Mark Duffield Cambridge, Polity Press, 2007, 278 pp., including references and index, ISBN 978-0-7456-3580-4 (pbk), £18.99, €25.70 It has become commonplace in academic debate to chart the changing...

260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Greg Burgess1
TL;DR: Refugee histories tend towards the study of particular refugee groups, or refugees in particular places as discussed by the authors, and this past century of war, shifting borders and population displacement has uprooted many ten...
Abstract: Refugee histories tend towards the study of particular refugee groups, or refugees in particular places. This past century of war, shifting borders and population displacement has uprooted many ten...

109 citations

01 Nov 2011
TL;DR: Dark tourism as discussed by the authors : dark tourism is a type of tourism that uses tourism as a source of revenue for dark tourism, e.g. dark tourism tourism, and dark tourism can be classified as:
Abstract: Dark tourism은 역사적으로 죽음, 재난, 고통, 참상이 일어났던 지역을 여행하며 반성과 교훈을 얻는 인간 행위이다. 제주의 경우는 특별한 지정학적 위치로 인해 dark tourism의 많은 대상지를 지닌 지역으로 손꼽힐 수 있다. 역사적 사실정확성을 조사하고 연구한 작업들이 확대되면서 4·3비극의 장소와 평화공원 그리고 모슬포지역 일본 군사시설에 관한 dark tourism에 대한 논의가 시작되고 있다. 두 장소는 제주 dark tourism의 새로운 관광 패턴을 창출하는데 주요한 대상지임에 틀림없다. 특히 두 장소는 방문객에게 제주사회의 아픈 기억을 전달하며 이해시키고 세계인으로 성장할 수 있는 성찰적 역사교육의 장소이다. 모슬포지역 일본군 전적지는 장소로는 원초적(primary)이며 규모로는 집단적 고통을 경험한 역사교육의 장소이다. 일제강점기 모슬포지역은 전쟁을 통해 희생자가 발생하지는 않았지만 일본군 군사시설이 세계 수준으로 원형 보존된 상태이고, 군사시설 구축 과정에서 제주도민들이 강제 동원되어 많은 고난을 경험했고, 이런 역사적 사실은 현장을 방문한 한국, 동남아, 세계 방문객들에게 역사교육을 통해 뜨거운 존재 혹은 상징 사실정확성을 지니게 한다. 더 나아가 일본군 군사유적은 제주특별자치도가 진행하는 거대 프로젝트인 평화의 섬 그리고 국제자유도시와 연계해 성찰적 사고를 지니게 하는 장소가 될 수 있다. 이는 역사교육을 통해 역사적 사실정확성을 미래지향적으로 승화시켜 인권과 평화가 살아 숨 쉬는 제주특별자치도의 근본을 창출할 수 있다.

84 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) published its updated Commentary on Geneva Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of 12 August 1949 (GC II).
Abstract: Naval warfare and maritime security may seem a surprising theme to choose for the Review today. As a matter of fact, in the last few years most discussion about humanitarian law and action has centred on other spaces such as the arid reaches of Central Asia and the Sahel, urban areas in the Middle East, or even cyberspace, rather than the seas. However, there is a geopolitical chess game under way on the world’s oceans, which despite rarely being the centre of media attention, nevertheless carries colossal stakes. The stakes – political, but also environmental and human – are played out on a background of exponential technological developments, of States’ assertion of their sovereignty, of globalization of trade and wealth, but also of vulnerability. Our interdependence is laid bare on the ocean waves, for good or ill. The Review believes that these developments must be understood in terms of the risks they harbour from a humanitarian viewpoint. Naval warfare is changing, and more than 20 years after the Review last dedicated an issue to the subject, it is time to examine that evolution. In May 2017, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) published its updated Commentary on Geneva Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of 12 August 1949 (GC II). This provides an opportunity to reassert the existing legal rules and discuss how to apply them in light of today’s realities and the genuine risk of confrontation.

39 citations

MonographDOI
31 Jul 2020
TL;DR: The authors apply a moral economy approach to shed new light on the forces and ideas that motivated and shaped humanitarian aid during the Great Irish Famine, the famine of 1921-1922 in Soviet Russia and the Ukraine, and the 1980s Ethiopian famine.
Abstract: This is an innovative new history of famine relief and humanitarianism. The authors apply a moral economy approach to shed new light on the forces and ideas that motivated and shaped humanitarian aid during the Great Irish Famine, the famine of 1921-1922 in Soviet Russia and the Ukraine, and the 1980s Ethiopian famine. They place these episodes within a distinctive periodisation of humanitarianism which emphasises the correlations with politico-economic regimes: the time of elitist laissez-faire liberalism in the nineteenth century as one of ad hoc humanitarianism; that of Taylorism and mass society from c.1900-1970 as one of organised humanitarianism; and the blend of individualised post-material lifestyles and neoliberal public management since 1970 as one of expressive humanitarianism. The book as a whole shifts the focus of the history of humanitarianism from the imperatives of crisis management to the pragmatic mechanisms of fundraising, relief efforts on the ground, and finance. This book is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

38 citations