Bio: John Paddock is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Prehistoric archaeology & Reciprocal altruism. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 12 publications receiving 698 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, a high gain digital phase comparator was proposed for digital phase lock loop systems, which can give a thousand-fold reduction in ripple and close-in noise sideband amplitudes.
Abstract: A high gain digital phase comparator which in digital phase lock loop systems can give a thousand-fold reduction in ripple and close-in noise sideband amplitudes. The comparator is of the sample-and-hold type but the normal ramp reference waveform is replaced by a trapezoidal waveform with a very steep rising or falling slope generated by a trapezoidal waveform generator. This slope is sampled by a sampling circuit coupled to said generator and its steepness gives the increased gain of the phase comparator leading to the reduced noise and ripple. Additional logic and switching circuits are added to make the comparator operate only during a rising edge of the trapezoidal waveform.
TL;DR: In this article, a rather traditional ecological model is presented to explain pre-Hispanic ultural evolution in the valley of Oaxaca, showing that the published data do not permit he rejection of either.
Abstract: A number of researchers have recently challenged the usefulness of cultural ecology for explaining pre-Hispanic ultural evolution in the Valley of Oaxaca. We address those criticisms and attempt to show how a rather traditional ecological model is at least consonant with the data. Our aim is not so much to demonstrate the greater explanatory power of our model in comparison with the arguments of the researchers of the Valley of Oaxaca projects as to show that the published data do not permit he rejection of either.
TL;DR: Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even in the absence of their prototypes.
Abstract: A. I. Hallowell tried to turn anthropology towards a sociobiology while the former field was still strongly opposed to any consideration of the evolution of human behavior. His work is of more than historical interest, however, because he stressed the evolution of the human ability to internalize social norms and evaluate self and others in terms of them. This ability is the basis of our species's trait of cultural rather than biological adaptation to diverse ecological settings. Sociobiologists have dealt with the evolution of norm acquisition under the rubric of "altruism." Insofar as adherence to norms either directly increases the fitnes of kin (kin selection) or indirectly increases the fitness of all participants (reciprocal altruism), both Hamilton and Trivers have offered explanations for adherence to social norms. Hallowell's approach permits the building of a thrid but complementary explanation based on selection for the ability to internalize others and to attend to their representations even i...
TL;DR: The Chalchuapa Archaeological Project as discussed by the authors provides the first time data bearing upon the entire prehistoric time-span of a major site in this Maya frontier region in the southeastern highlands of El Salvador.
Abstract: THE VERITABLE EXPLOSION of archaeological research activity in the Maya area during the past 15 years has affected primarily the core areas of prehistoric Maya cultural development: the highlands of Chiapas and Guatemala and the lowlands of Guatemala and Yucatan (Adams 1969). Contrary to this trend, the investigations of the Chalchuapa Archaeological Project have focused upon an important population and ceremonial center on the periphery of the Maya area in the southeastern highlands of El Salvador. Despite its long characterization as a frontier between Maya and non-Maya peoples (Lothrop 1939, Longyear 1947), this area has never been subjected to the systematic problem-oriented archaeological investigation necessary to the discovery of the actual nature of this region in pre-Columbian times. The investigations of the Chalchuapa Archaeological Project provide for the first time data bearing upon the entire prehistoric time-span of a major site in this Maya frontier region (fig. 1). The research coincided with the important excavations by Andrews (1970) at
TL;DR: The cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor and patriarchy, is reviewed.
Abstract: This article evaluates theories of the origins of sex differences in human behavior. It reviews the cross-cultural evidence on the behavior of women and men in nonindustrial societies, especially the activities that contribute to the sex-typed division of labor and patriarchy. To explain the cross-cultural findings, the authors consider social constructionism, evolutionary psychology, and their own biosocial theory. Supporting the biosocial analysis, sex differences derive from the interaction between the physical specialization of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies. This biosocial approach treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent given the evolved characteristics of the sexes, their developmental experiences, and their situated activity in society.
TL;DR: The Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus as mentioned in this paper is a remarkable and strikingly original work which is published in German and English in parallel pages and it is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation.
Abstract: 13 EADERS of Mr. Bertrand Russell's philosophical £v works know that one of his pupils before the outbreak of the war, an Austrian, Mr. Ludwig Wittgenstein, caused him to change his views in some important particulars. Curiosity can now be satisfied. The “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus “which Mr. Ogden has included in his new library of philosophy is a remarkable and strikingly original work. It is published in German and English in parallel pages. It is difficult to appreciate the reason for this, seeing that the author is evidently familiar with our language and has himself carefully revised the proofs of the translation. Also we should have liked to have the Tractatus without Mr. Russell's Introduction, not, we hasten to add, on account of any fault or shortcoming in that introduction, which is highly appreciative and in part a defence of himself, in part explanatory of the author, but for the reason that good wine needs no bush and that Mr. Russell's bush has the unfortunate effect of dulling the palate instead of whetting the appetite. In his penultimate sentence Mr. Russell says; “To have constructed a theory of logic which is not at any point obviously wrong is to have achieved a work of extraordinary difficulty and importance.” We agree, but how uninspiring when compared with Mr. Wittgenstein's own statement of aim: “What can be said at all can be said clearly, and whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.” Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. By Ludwig Wittgenstein. (International Library of Psychology, Philosophy and Scientific Method.) Pp. 189. (London: Kegan Paul and Co., Ltd.; New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., Inc., 1922.) 10s. 6d. net.
TL;DR: The evidence for an empirically identifiable form of prosocial behavior in humans, which is called "strong reciprocity", is reviewed and a simple model of the evolutionary emergence of strong reciprocity is presented.
TL;DR: It is shown that the rejection of group selection was based on a misplaced emphasis on genes as “replicators” which is in fact irrelevant to the question of whether groups can be like individuals in their functional organization, and makes it clear that group selection is an important force to consider in human evolution.
Abstract: In both biology and the human sciences, social groups are sometimes treated as adaptive units whose organization cannot be reduced to individual interactions. This group-level view is opposed by a more individualistic one that treats social organization as a byproduct of self-interest. According to biologists, group-level adaptations can evolve only by a process of natural selection at the group level. Most biologists rejected group selection as an important evolutionary force during the 1960s and 1970s but a positive literature began to grow during the 1970s and is rapidly expanding today. We review this recent literature and its implications for human evolutionary biology. We show that the rejection of group selection was based on a misplaced emphasis on genes as “replicators” which is in fact irrelevant to the question of whether groups can be like individuals in their functional organization. The fundamental question is whether social groups and other higher-level entities can be “vehicles” of selection. When this elementary fact is recognized, group selection emerges as an important force in nature and what seem to be competing theories, such as kin selection and reciprocity, reappear as special cases of group selection. The result is a unified theory of natural selection that operates on a nested hierarchy of units. The vehicle-based theory makes it clear that group selection is an important force to consider in human evolution. Humans can facultatively span the full range from self-interested individuals to “organs” of group-level “organisms.” Human behavior not only reflects the balance between levels of selection but it can also alter the balance through the construction of social structures that have the effect of reducing fitness differences within groups, concentrating natural selection (and functional organization) at the group level. These social structures and the cognitive abilities that produce them allow group selection to be important even among large groups of unrelated individuals.