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John Pender

Bio: John Pender is an academic researcher from United States Department of Agriculture. The author has contributed to research in topics: Land management & Agricultural productivity. The author has an hindex of 53, co-authored 158 publications receiving 8876 citations. Previous affiliations of John Pender include International Food Policy Research Institute & International Livestock Research Institute.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, three models of credit markets -the permanent income model, upward sloping credit supply to individual borrowers, and constrained credit due to imperfect enforcement -were tested using credit market data and an experimental study of individuals' discount rates in south India.

368 citations

Posted Content
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The role of agricultural advisory services in supporting the use of the agricultural sector as an engine of pro-poor growth and enabling small farmers to meet new challenges, such as accessing export markets, adopting environmentally sustainable production techniques, and coping with HIV/AIDS and other health challenges that affect agriculture as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: "Agricultural advisory services play an important role in supporting the use of the agricultural sector as an engine of pro-poor growth and enabling small farmers to meet new challenges, such as accessing export markets, adopting environmentally sustainable production techniques, and coping with HIV/AIDS and other health challenges that affect agriculture...There is now renewed interest in agricultural advisory services in many countries.... The questions under debate include: What should be the roles of the public sector, private sector, and civil society? How can we ensure that agricultural advisory services are demand-driven and meet the diverse information needs of farmers? How can advisory services be made efficient and financially sustainable? How can we ensure that female farmers, the poor, and other marginalized groups have access to agricultural advisory services?" from Authors' Summary

333 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a bio-economic model calibrated to the socioeconomic and biophysical characteristics of a less-favoured area in the Ethiopian highlands was used to assess the impact of improved access to non-farm income on household welfare, agricultural production, conservation investments and land degradation in the form of soil erosion.

273 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review the ecological debate surrounding the planting of eucalyptus trees and conclude that a policy option favoring the allocation of wastelands for private tree planting offers the greatest opportunity for rural smallholders.

273 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the impacts of population growth, market access, agricultural credit and technical assistance programs, land policies, livelihood strategies and other factors on changes in land management, natural resource conditions and human welfare indicators were investigated.
Abstract: This paper investigates the impacts of population growth, market access, agricultural credit and technical assistance programs, land policies, livelihood strategies and other factors on changes in land management, natural resource conditions and human welfare indicators since 1991 in the northern Ethiopian highlands, based on a survey of 198 villages. We find that population growth has contributed significantly to land degradation, poverty and food insecurity in this region. In contrast, better market access and some credit and technical assistance programs were associated with improvement (or less decline) in land quality, wealth and food security; suggesting the possibility of “win-win-win” development outcomes with appropriate interventions. Land redistribution was associated with adoption of inorganic fertilizer, but also with declining use of fallow and declining soil fertility. We find also that different land management practices are adopted where different livelihood strategies are pursued, suggesting the importance of considering livelihood strategies in technical assistance programs. Development strategies should be tailored to the different comparative advantages of different locations; no “one-size-fits-all” strategy will work everywhere.(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

264 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 2009

8,216 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the discounted utility (DU) model, its historical development, underlying assumptions, and "anomalies" -the empirical regularities that are inconsistent with its theoretical predictions.
Abstract: This paper discusses the discounted utility (DU) model: its historical development, underlying assumptions, and "anomalies" - the empirical regularities that are inconsistent with its theoretical predictions. We then summarize the alternate theoretical formulations that have been advanced to address these anomalies. We also review three decades of empirical research on intertemporal choice, and discuss reasons for the spectacular variation in implicit discount rates across studies. Throughout the paper, we stress the importance of distinguishing time preference, per se, from many other considerations that also influence intertemporal choices.

5,242 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the last two decades, much research has been done on the econometric and statistical analysis of such causal effects as discussed by the authors, which has reached a level of maturity that makes it an important tool in many areas of empirical research in economics, including labor economics, public finance, development economics, industrial organization, and other areas in empirical microeconomics.
Abstract: Many empirical questions in economics and other social sciences depend on causal effects of programs or policies. In the last two decades, much research has been done on the econometric and statistical analysis of such causal effects. This recent theoreti- cal literature has built on, and combined features of, earlier work in both the statistics and econometrics literatures. It has by now reached a level of maturity that makes it an important tool in many areas of empirical research in economics, including labor economics, public finance, development economics, industrial organization, and other areas of empirical microeconomics. In this review, we discuss some of the recent developments. We focus primarily on practical issues for empirical research- ers, as well as provide a historical overview of the area and give references to more technical research.

3,175 citations

01 Aug 2001
TL;DR: The study of distributed systems which bring to life the vision of ubiquitous computing systems, also known as ambient intelligence, is concentrated on in this work.
Abstract: With digital equipment becoming increasingly networked, either on wired or wireless networks, for personal and professional use alike, distributed software systems have become a crucial element in information and communications technologies. The study of these systems forms the core of the ARLES' work, which is specifically concerned with defining new system software architectures, based on the use of emerging networking technologies. In this context, we concentrate on the study of distributed systems which bring to life the vision of ubiquitous computing systems, also known as ambient intelligence.

2,774 citations