John R. Smith
Bio: John R. Smith is an academic researcher from IBM. The author has contributed to research in topics: Image retrieval & TRECVID. The author has an hindex of 69, co-authored 371 publications receiving 19618 citations. Previous affiliations of John R. Smith include Moving Picture Experts Group & Columbia University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••01 Feb 1997
TL;DR: The VisualSEEk system is novel in that the user forms the queries by diagramming spatial arrangements of color regions by utilizing color information, region sizes and absolute and relative spatial locations.
Abstract: We describe a highly functional prototype system for searching by visual features in an image database. The VisualSEEk system is novel in that the user forms the queries by diagramming spatial arrangements of color regions. The system nds the images that contain the most similar arrangements of similar regions. Prior to the queries, the system automatically extracts and indexes salient color regions from the images. By utilizing e cient indexing techniques for color information, region sizes and absolute and relative spatial locations, a wide variety of complex joint color/spatial queries may be computed.
TL;DR: This work presents a system that adapts multimedia Web documents to optimally match the capabilities of the client device requesting it using a representation scheme called the InfoPyramid that provides a multimodal, multiresolution representation hierarchy for multimedia.
Abstract: Content delivery over the Internet needs to address both the multimedia nature of the content and the capabilities of the diverse client platforms the content is being delivered to. We present a system that adapts multimedia Web documents to optimally match the capabilities of the client device requesting it. This system has two key components. 1) A representation scheme called the InfoPyramid that provides a multimodal, multiresolution representation hierarchy for multimedia. 2) A customizer that selects the best content representation to meet the client capabilities while delivering the most value. We model the selection process as a resource allocation problem in a generalized rate distortion framework. In this framework, we address the issue of both multiple media types in a Web document and multiple resource types at the client. We extend this framework to allow prioritization on the content items in a Web document. We illustrate our content adaptation technique with a web server that adapts multimedia news stories to clients as diverse as workstations, PDA's and cellular phones.
TL;DR: The large-scale concept ontology for multimedia (LSCOM) is the first of its kind designed to simultaneously optimize utility to facilitate end-user access, cover a large semantic space, make automated extraction feasible, and increase observability in diverse broadcast news video data sets.
Abstract: As increasingly powerful techniques emerge for machine tagging multimedia content, it becomes ever more important to standardize the underlying vocabularies. Doing so provides interoperability and lets the multimedia community focus ongoing research on a well-defined set of semantics. This paper describes a collaborative effort of multimedia researchers, library scientists, and end users to develop a large standardized taxonomy for describing broadcast news video. The large-scale concept ontology for multimedia (LSCOM) is the first of its kind designed to simultaneously optimize utility to facilitate end-user access, cover a large semantic space, make automated extraction feasible, and increase observability in diverse broadcast news video data sets
TL;DR: This work proposes a technique by which the color content of images and videos is automatically extracted to form a class of meta-data that is easily indexed and evaluates the retrieval effectiveness of the color set back-projection method and compares its performance to other color image retrieval methods.
Abstract: The growth of digital image and video archives is increasing the need for tools that effectively filter and efficiently search through large amounts of visual data. Towards this goal we propose a technique by which the color content of images and videos is automatically extracted to form a class of meta-data that is easily indexed. The color indexing algorithm uses the back- projection of binary color sets to extract color regions from images. This technique provides for both the automated extraction of regions and representation of their color content. It overcomes some of the problems with color histogram techniques such as high-dimensional feature vectors, spatial localization, indexing and distance computation. We present the binary color set back-projection technique and discuss its implementation in the VisualSEEk content- based image/video retrieval system for the World Wide Web. We also evaluate the retrieval effectiveness of the color set back-projection method and compare its performance to other color image retrieval methods.
••23 Jun 2013
TL;DR: The decision function for verification is proposed to be viewed as a joint model of a distance metric and a locally adaptive thresholding rule, and the inference on the decision function is formulated as a second-order large-margin regularization problem, and an efficient algorithm is provided in its dual from.
Abstract: This paper considers the person verification problem in modern surveillance and video retrieval systems. The problem is to identify whether a pair of face or human body images is about the same person, even if the person is not seen before. Traditional methods usually look for a distance (or similarity) measure between images (e.g., by metric learning algorithms), and make decisions based on a fixed threshold. We show that this is nevertheless insufficient and sub-optimal for the verification problem. This paper proposes to learn a decision function for verification that can be viewed as a joint model of a distance metric and a locally adaptive thresholding rule. We further formulate the inference on our decision function as a second-order large-margin regularization problem, and provide an efficient algorithm in its dual from. We evaluate our algorithm on both human body verification and face verification problems. Our method outperforms not only the classical metric learning algorithm including LMNN and ITML, but also the state-of-the-art in the computer vision community.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared in the last year, to survey the use of deep learning for image classification, object detection, segmentation, registration, and other tasks.
Abstract: Deep learning algorithms, in particular convolutional networks, have rapidly become a methodology of choice for analyzing medical images. This paper reviews the major deep learning concepts pertinent to medical image analysis and summarizes over 300 contributions to the field, most of which appeared in the last year. We survey the use of deep learning for image classification, object detection, segmentation, registration, and other tasks. Concise overviews are provided of studies per application area: neuro, retinal, pulmonary, digital pathology, breast, cardiac, abdominal, musculoskeletal. We end with a summary of the current state-of-the-art, a critical discussion of open challenges and directions for future research.
TL;DR: This work demonstrates an artificial intelligence capable of classifying skin cancer with a level of competence comparable to dermatologists, trained end-to-end from images directly, using only pixels and disease labels as inputs.
Abstract: Skin cancer, the most common human malignancy, is primarily diagnosed visually, beginning with an initial clinical screening and followed potentially by dermoscopic analysis, a biopsy and histopathological examination. Automated classification of skin lesions using images is a challenging task owing to the fine-grained variability in the appearance of skin lesions. Deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) show potential for general and highly variable tasks across many fine-grained object categories. Here we demonstrate classification of skin lesions using a single CNN, trained end-to-end from images directly, using only pixels and disease labels as inputs. We train a CNN using a dataset of 129,450 clinical images-two orders of magnitude larger than previous datasets-consisting of 2,032 different diseases. We test its performance against 21 board-certified dermatologists on biopsy-proven clinical images with two critical binary classification use cases: keratinocyte carcinomas versus benign seborrheic keratoses; and malignant melanomas versus benign nevi. The first case represents the identification of the most common cancers, the second represents the identification of the deadliest skin cancer. The CNN achieves performance on par with all tested experts across both tasks, demonstrating an artificial intelligence capable of classifying skin cancer with a level of competence comparable to dermatologists. Outfitted with deep neural networks, mobile devices can potentially extend the reach of dermatologists outside of the clinic. It is projected that 6.3 billion smartphone subscriptions will exist by the year 2021 (ref. 13) and can therefore potentially provide low-cost universal access to vital diagnostic care.
TL;DR: The working conditions of content-based retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap are discussed, as well as aspects of system engineering: databases, system architecture, and evaluation.
Abstract: Presents a review of 200 references in content-based image retrieval. The paper starts with discussing the working conditions of content-based retrieval: patterns of use, types of pictures, the role of semantics, and the sensory gap. Subsequent sections discuss computational steps for image retrieval systems. Step one of the review is image processing for retrieval sorted by color, texture, and local geometry. Features for retrieval are discussed next, sorted by: accumulative and global features, salient points, object and shape features, signs, and structural combinations thereof. Similarity of pictures and objects in pictures is reviewed for each of the feature types, in close connection to the types and means of feedback the user of the systems is capable of giving by interaction. We briefly discuss aspects of system engineering: databases, system architecture, and evaluation. In the concluding section, we present our view on: the driving force of the field, the heritage from computer vision, the influence on computer vision, the role of similarity and of interaction, the need for databases, the problem of evaluation, and the role of the semantic gap.
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: This paper gives a lightning overview of data mining and its relation to statistics, with particular emphasis on tools for the detection of adverse drug reactions.
Abstract: The growing interest in data mining is motivated by a common problem across disciplines: how does one store, access, model, and ultimately describe and understand very large data sets? Historically, different aspects of data mining have been addressed independently by different disciplines. This is the first truly interdisciplinary text on data mining, blending the contributions of information science, computer science, and statistics. The book consists of three sections. The first, foundations, provides a tutorial overview of the principles underlying data mining algorithms and their application. The presentation emphasizes intuition rather than rigor. The second section, data mining algorithms, shows how algorithms are constructed to solve specific problems in a principled manner. The algorithms covered include trees and rules for classification and regression, association rules, belief networks, classical statistical models, nonlinear models such as neural networks, and local "memory-based" models. The third section shows how all of the preceding analysis fits together when applied to real-world data mining problems. Topics include the role of metadata, how to handle missing data, and data preprocessing.