Other affiliations: University of California, Los Angeles, Seoul National University, Systems Research Institute ...read more
Bio: Jong-Seok Lee is an academic researcher from Yonsei University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Video quality & Deep learning. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 281 publications receiving 12973 citations. Previous affiliations of Jong-Seok Lee include University of California, Los Angeles & Seoul National University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Pembrolizumab had an acceptable side-effect profile and showed antitumor activity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy of pembrolIZumab.
Abstract: BackgroundWe assessed the efficacy and safety of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibition with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer enrolled in a phase 1 study. We also sought to define and validate an expression level of the PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) that is associated with the likelihood of clinical benefit. MethodsWe assigned 495 patients receiving pembrolizumab (at a dose of either 2 mg or 10 mg per kilogram of body weight every 3 weeks or 10 mg per kilogram every 2 weeks) to either a training group (182 patients) or a validation group (313 patients). We assessed PD-L1 expression in tumor samples using immunohistochemical analysis, with results reported as the percentage of neoplastic cells with staining for membranous PD-L1 (proportion score). Response was assessed every 9 weeks by central review. ResultsCommon side effects that were attributed to pembrolizumab were fatigue, pruritus, and decreased appetite, with no clear difference according to dose or schedule. Among all ...
TL;DR: A multimodal data set for the analysis of human affective states was presented and a novel method for stimuli selection is proposed using retrieval by affective tags from the last.fm website, video highlight detection, and an online assessment tool.
Abstract: We present a multimodal data set for the analysis of human affective states. The electroencephalogram (EEG) and peripheral physiological signals of 32 participants were recorded as each watched 40 one-minute long excerpts of music videos. Participants rated each video in terms of the levels of arousal, valence, like/dislike, dominance, and familiarity. For 22 of the 32 participants, frontal face video was also recorded. A novel method for stimuli selection is proposed using retrieval by affective tags from the last.fm website, video highlight detection, and an online assessment tool. An extensive analysis of the participants' ratings during the experiment is presented. Correlates between the EEG signal frequencies and the participants' ratings are investigated. Methods and results are presented for single-trial classification of arousal, valence, and like/dislike ratings using the modalities of EEG, peripheral physiological signals, and multimedia content analysis. Finally, decision fusion of the classification results from different modalities is performed. The data set is made publicly available and we encourage other researchers to use it for testing their own affective state estimation methods.
TL;DR: The benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab over chemotherapy was broadly consistent within subgroups, including patients with a PD‐L1 expression level of at least 1% and those with a level of less than 1%.
Abstract: Background Nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising efficacy for the treatment of non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial, and tumor mutational burden has emerged as a potential biomarker of benefit. In this part of an open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, we examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase). Methods We enrolled patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC that was not previously treated with chemotherapy. Those with a level of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of at least 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab monotherapy, or chemotherapy; those with a tumor PD-L1 expression level of less than 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy. Tumor mutational burden was determined by the FoundationOne CDx...
TL;DR: P-Akt overexpression was associated with prolonged TTP in patients with EGFR mutation, which further support the importance of EGFR mutations with regard to gefitinib sensitivity.
Abstract: Purpose This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and its downstream signaling on response and survival in non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with gefitinib. Patients and Methods For 90 consecutive NSCLC patients who had received gefitinib, EGFR mutation was analyzed by DNA sequencing of exons 18, 19, 21, and 23 in the EGFR tyrosine kinase domain. Expressions of phosphorylated (p) -Akt and p-Erk were determined via immunohistochemistry. Response rate, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival were compared between each group according to EGFR mutation, as well as p-Akt and p-Erk expression. Results Seventeen patients (18.9%; 95% CI, 10.8 to 27.0) harbored EGFR mutations. These mutations include deletions in exon 19 in seven patients, L858R in six patients, G719A in three patients, and a novel A859T in one patient. Response rate in patients with EGFR mutation was 64.7% (11 of 17 patients; 95% CI, 42.0 to 87.4), in contras...
TL;DR: EGFR TKI-resistant SCLCs are branched out early from the LADC clones that harbor completely inactivated RB1 and TP53, and they share a common clonal origin and undergoBranched evolutionary trajectories.
Abstract: Purpose Histologic transformation of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) into small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been described as one of the major resistant mechanisms for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the molecular pathogenesis is still unclear. Methods We investigated 21 patients with advanced EGFR-mutant LADCs that were transformed into EGFR TKI-resistant SCLCs. Among them, whole genome sequencing was applied for nine tumors acquired at various time points from four patients to reconstruct their clonal evolutionary history and to detect genetic predictors for small-cell transformation. The findings were validated by immunohistochemistry in 210 lung cancer tissues. Results We identified that EGFR TKI-resistant LADCs and SCLCs share a common clonal origin and undergo branched evolutionary trajectories. The clonal divergence of SCLC ancestors from the LADC cells occurred before the first EGFR TKI treatments, and the complete inactivation of both RB1 and TP53 were observed from the early LADC stages in sequenced tumors. We extended the findings by immunohistochemistry in the early-stage LADC tissues of 75 patients treated with EGFR TKIs; inactivation of both Rb and p53 was strikingly more frequent in the small-cell-transformed group than in the nontransformed group (82% v 3%; odds ratio, 131; 95% CI, 19.9 to 859). Among patients registered in a predefined cohort (n = 65), an EGFR mutant LADC that harbored completely inactivated Rb and p53 had a 43× greater risk of small-cell transformation (relative risk, 42.8; 95% CI, 5.88 to 311). Branch-specific mutational signature analysis revealed that apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)-induced hypermutation was frequent in the branches toward small-cell transformation. Conclusion EGFR TKI-resistant SCLCs are branched out early from the LADC clones that harbor completely inactivated RB1 and TP53. The evaluation of RB1 and TP53 status in EGFR TKI-treated LADCs is informative in predicting small-cell transformation.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.
TL;DR: Nivolumab was associated with even greater efficacy than docetaxel across all end points in subgroups defined according to prespecified levels of tumor-membrane expression (≥1, ≥5%, and ≥10%) of the PD-1 ligand.
Abstract: BackgroundNivolumab, a fully human IgG4 programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune-checkpoint–inhibitor antibody, disrupts PD-1–mediated signaling and may restore antitumor immunity. MethodsIn this randomized, open-label, international phase 3 study, we assigned patients with nonsquamous non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that had progressed during or after platinum-based doublet chemotherapy to receive nivolumab at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2 weeks or docetaxel at a dose of 75 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival. ResultsOverall survival was longer with nivolumab than with docetaxel. The median overall survival was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.7 to 15.0) among 292 patients in the nivolumab group and 9.4 months (95% CI, 8.1 to 10.7) among 290 patients in the docetaxel group (hazard ratio for death, 0.73; 96% CI, 0.59 to 0.89; P=0.002). At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 51% (95% CI, 45 to 56) with nivolumab ve...
TL;DR: Gefit inib is superior to carboplatin-paclitaxel as an initial treatment for pulmonary adenocarcinoma among nonsmokers or former light smokers in East Asia and the presence in the tumor of a mutation of the EGFR gene is a strong predictor of a better outcome with gefitinib.
Abstract: METHODS In this phase 3, open-label study, we randomly assigned previously untreated patients in East Asia who had advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma and who were nonsmokers or former light smokers to receive gefitinib (250 mg per day) (609 patients) or carboplatin (at a dose calculated to produce an area under the curve of 5 or 6 mg per milliliter per minute) plus paclitaxel (200 mg per square meter of body-surface area) (608 patients). The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS The 12-month rates of progression-free survival were 24.9% with gefitinib and 6.7% with carboplatin–paclitaxel. The study met its primary objective of showing the noninferiority of gefitinib and also showed its superiority, as compared with carboplatin– paclitaxel, with respect to progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). In the subgroup of 261 patients who were positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutation, progression-free survival was significantly longer among those who received gefitinib than among those who received carboplatin–paclitaxel (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.64; P<0.001), whereas in the subgroup of 176 patients who were negative for the mutation, progression-free survival was significantly longer among those who received carboplatin–paclitaxel (hazard ratio for progression or death with gefitinib, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.05 to 3.98; P<0.001). The most common adverse events were rash or acne (in 66.2% of patients) and diarrhea (46.6%) in the gefitinib group and neurotoxic effects (69.9%), neutropenia (67.1%), and alopecia (58.4%) in the carboplatin–paclitaxel group. CONCLUSIONS Gefitinib is superior to carboplatin–paclitaxel as an initial treatment for pulmonary adenocarcinoma among nonsmokers or former light smokers in East Asia. The presence in the tumor of a mutation of the EGFR gene is a strong predictor of a better outcome with gefitinib. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00322452.)
TL;DR: Pembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express PD-L1 as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: BackgroundPembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). MethodsIn this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator’s choice of platinum-based chemotherapy. Crossover from the chemotherapy group to the pembrolizumab group was permitted in the event of disease progression. The primary end point, progression-free survival, was assessed by means of blinded, independent, central radiologic review. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. ResultsMedi...
TL;DR: This review summarizes the clinical efficacy, perspectives, and future challenges of using PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies in the treatment of breast cancer.
Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibition represents a major recent breakthrough in the treatment of malignant diseases including breast cancer. Blocking the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) and its ligand, PD-L1, has shown impressive antitumor activity and may lead to durable long-term disease control, especially in the triple-negative subtypes of breast cancer (TNBC). Although immune checkpoint blockade is generally well tolerated, specific immune-related adverse events (irAEs) may occur. This review summarizes the clinical efficacy, perspectives, and future challenges of using PD-1/PD-L1-directed antibodies in the treatment of breast cancer.