Other affiliations: Group Health Cooperative
Bio: Jonghwan Min is an academic researcher from KAIST. The author has contributed to research in topics: Iterative reconstruction & Image quality. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 19 publications receiving 109 citations. Previous affiliations of Jonghwan Min include Group Health Cooperative.
TL;DR: In this article, an oscillating multi-slit collimator between the x-ray source and the patient is used for low-dose computed tomography (CT) that does not require a fast X-ray power switching.
Abstract: We proposed a novel scanning method for low-dose computed tomography (CT) that uses an oscillating multi-slit collimator between the x-ray source and the patient. It can be thought as a realization of sparse data sampling that does not require a fast x-ray power switching. A simulation study was performed based on experimentally acquired microCT data of a mouse to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. A numerical collimation was designed to leave only one-fourth of each projection data for use in image reconstruction. A total-variation minimization algorithm was implemented for image reconstruction from the sparely sampled data. We have successfully shown that the proposed method provides a viable option to low-dose CT.
TL;DR: It is shown that one can further reduce the number of projections, resulting in a super-sparse scan, for a good quality image reconstruction with the aid of a prior data, and both numerical and experimental results are provided.
Abstract: Computed tomography (CT) is widely used in medicine for diagnostics or for image-guided therapies, and is also popular in industrial applications for nondestructive testing. CT conventionally requires a large number of projections to pro- duce volumetric images of a scanned object, because the conventional image reconstruction algorithm is based on filtered- backprojection. This requirement may result in relatively high radiation dose to the patients in medical CT unless the radiation dose at each view angle is reduced, and can cause expensive scanning time and efforts in industrial CT applications. Sparse- view CT may provide a viable option to address both issues including high radiation dose and expensive scanning efforts. However, image reconstruction from sparsely sampled data in CT is in general very challenging, and much efforts have been made to develop algorithms for such an image reconstruction problem. Image total-variation minimization algorithm inspired by compressive sensing theory has recently been developed, which exploits the sparseness of the image derivative magnitude and can reconstruct images from sparse-view data to a similar quality of the images conventionally reconstructed from many views. In successive CT scans, prior CT image of an object and its projection data may be readily available, and the current CT image may have not much difference from the prior image. Considering the sparseness of such a difference image between the successive scans, image reconstruction of the difference image may be achieved from very sparsely sampled data. In this work, we showed that one can further reduce the number of projections, resulting in a super-sparse scan, for a good quality image reconstruction with the aid of a prior data. Both numerical and experimental results are provided.
11 Mar 2018-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed an efficient material decomposition calibration process for a linear accelerator (LINAC) based high-energy X-ray cargo inspection system and proposed a multi-spot calibration method to improve the decomposition performance throughout the entire FOV.
Abstract: Dual-energy X-ray inspection systems are widely used today for it provides X-ray attenuation contrast of the imaged object and also its material information. Material decomposition capability allows a higher detection sensitivity of potential targets including purposely loaded impurities in agricultural product inspections and threats in security scans for example. Dual-energy X-ray transmission data can be transformed into two basis material thickness data, and its transformation accuracy heavily relies on a calibration of material decomposition process. The calibration process in general can be laborious and time consuming. Moreover, a conventional calibration method is often challenged by the nonuniform spectral characteristics of the X-ray beam in the entire field-of-view (FOV). In this work, we developed an efficient material decomposition calibration process for a linear accelerator (LINAC) based high-energy X-ray cargo inspection system. We also proposed a multi-spot calibration method to improve the decomposition performance throughout the entire FOV. Experimental validation of the proposed method has been demonstrated by use of a cargo inspection system that supports 6 MV and 9 MV dual-energy imaging.
TL;DR: The authors have successfully demonstrated that the proposed scanning method and image reconstruction algorithm can effectively estimate the scatter in cone-beam projections and produce tomographic images of nearly scatter-free quality.
Abstract: Purpose: A beam-blocker composed of multiple strips is a useful gadget for scatter correction and/or for dose reduction in cone-beam CT (CBCT). However, the use of such a beam-blocker would yield cone-beam data that can be challenging for accurate image reconstruction from a single scan in the filtered-backprojection framework. The focus of the work was to develop an analytic image reconstruction method for CBCT that can be directly applied to partially blocked cone-beam data in conjunction with the scatter correction. Methods: The authors developed a rebinned backprojection-filteration (BPF) algorithm for reconstructing images from the partially blocked cone-beam data in a circular scan. The authors also proposed a beam-blocking geometry considering data redundancy such that an efficient scatter estimate can be acquired and sufficient data for BPF image reconstruction can be secured at the same time from a single scan without using any blocker motion. Additionally, scatter correction method and noise reduction scheme have been developed. The authors have performed both simulation and experimental studies to validate the rebinned BPF algorithm for image reconstruction from partially blocked cone-beam data. Quantitative evaluations of the reconstructed image quality were performed in the experimental studies. Results: The simulation study revealed that the developed reconstructionmore » algorithm successfully reconstructs the images from the partial cone-beam data. In the experimental study, the proposed method effectively corrected for the scatter in each projection and reconstructed scatter-corrected images from a single scan. Reduction of cupping artifacts and an enhancement of the image contrast have been demonstrated. The image contrast has increased by a factor of about 2, and the image accuracy in terms of root-mean-square-error with respect to the fan-beam CT image has increased by more than 30%. Conclusions: The authors have successfully demonstrated that the proposed scanning method and image reconstruction algorithm can effectively estimate the scatter in cone-beam projections and produce tomographic images of nearly scatter-free quality. The authors believe that the proposed method would provide a fast and efficient CBCT scanning option to various applications particularly including head-and-neck scan.« less
TL;DR: It was successfully demonstrated that the proposed scanning scheme outperforms the others in terms of image contrast and spatial resolution, although the oblique scanning scheme showed a comparable resolution property.
Abstract: X-ray computed laminography is widely used in nondestructive testing of relatively flat objects using an oblique scanning configuration for data acquisition. In this work, a new scanning scheme is proposed in conjunction with the compressive-sensing-based image reconstruction for reducing imaging radiation dose and scanning time. We performed a numerical study comparing image qualities acquired by various scanning configurations that are practically implementable: single-arc, double-arc, oblique, and spherical-sinusoidal trajectories. A compressive-sensing-inspired total-variation (TV) minimization algorithm was used to reconstruct the images from the data acquired at only 40 projection views in those trajectories. It was successfully demonstrated that the proposed scanning scheme outperforms the others in terms of image contrast and spatial resolution, although the oblique scanning scheme showed a comparable resolution property. We believe that the proposed scanning method may provide a solution to fast and low-dose nondestructive testing of radiation-sensitive and highly integrated devices such as multilayer microelectronic circuit boards.
TL;DR: In CS-based image reconstructions both sampling density and data incoherence affect the image quality, and the authors suggest that a sampling scheme should be devised and optimized by use of these indicators.
Abstract: Purpose: Various scanning methods and image reconstruction algorithms are actively investigated for low-dose computed tomography (CT) that can potentially reduce a health-risk related to radiation dose. Particularly, compressive-sensing (CS) based algorithms have been successfully developed for reconstructing images from sparsely sampled data. Although these algorithms have shown promises in low-dose CT, it has not been studied how sparse sampling schemes affect image quality in CS-based image reconstruction. In this work, the authors present several sparse-sampling schemes for low-dose CT, quantitatively analyze their data property, and compare effects of the sampling schemes on the image quality.Methods: Data properties of several sampling schemes are analyzed with respect to the CS-based image reconstruction using two measures: sampling density and data incoherence. The authors present five different sparse sampling schemes, and simulated those schemes to achieve a targeted dose reduction. Dose reduction factors of about 75% and 87.5%, compared to a conventional scan, were tested. A fully sampled circular cone-beam CT data set was used as a reference, and sparse sampling has been realized numerically based on the CBCT data.Results: It is found that both sampling density and data incoherence affect the image quality in the CS-based reconstruction. Among the sampling schemes the authorsmore » investigated, the sparse-view, many-view undersampling (MVUS)-fine, and MVUS-moving cases have shown promising results. These sampling schemes produced images with similar image quality compared to the reference image and their structure similarity index values were higher than 0.92 in the mouse head scan with 75% dose reduction.Conclusions: The authors found that in CS-based image reconstructions both sampling density and data incoherence affect the image quality, and suggest that a sampling scheme should be devised and optimized by use of these indicators. With this strategic approach, one can acquire optimally sampled sparse data so that the CS-based algorithms can best perform in terms of image quality.« less
TL;DR: Wang et al. as mentioned in this paper reformulated the TV problem as a linear equality constrained problem, and then minimized its augmented Lagrangian function by using alternating direction method (ADM) to solve subproblems.
Abstract: Linear scan computed tomography (LCT) is of great benefit to online industrial scanning and security inspection due to its characteristics of straight-line source trajectory and high scanning speed. However, in practical applications of LCT, there are challenges to image reconstruction due to limited-angle and insufficient data. In this paper, a new reconstruction algorithm based on total-variation (TV) minimization is developed to reconstruct images from limited-angle and insufficient data in LCT. The main idea of our approach is to reformulate a TV problem as a linear equality constrained problem where the objective function is separable, and then minimize its augmented Lagrangian function by using alternating direction method (ADM) to solve subproblems. The proposed method is robust and efficient in the task of reconstruction by showing the convergence of ADM. The numerical simulations and real data reconstructions show that the proposed reconstruction method brings reasonable performance and outperforms some previous ones when applied to an LCT imaging problem.
TL;DR: The proposed algorithm can significantly reduce scatter artifacts and recover the correct HU in either projection domain or image domain and the contrast of the in vivo human images is greatly improved after correction.
Abstract: Purpose: Due to the increased axial coverage of multislice computed tomography (CT) and the introduction of flat detectors, the size of x-ray illumination fields has grown dramatically, causing an increase in scatter radiation. For CT imaging, scatter is a significant issue that introduces shading artifact, streaks, as well as reduced contrast and Hounsfield Units (HU) accuracy. The purpose of this work is to provide a fast and accurate scatter artifacts correction algorithm for cone beam CT (CBCT) imaging. Methods: The method starts with an estimation of coarse scatter profiles for a set of CBCT data in either image domain or projection domain. A denoising algorithm designed specifically for Poisson signals is then applied to derive the final scatter distribution. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations using thorax and abdomen phantoms with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, experimental Catphan phantom data, and in vivo human data acquired for a clinical image guided radiation therapy were performed. Scatter correction in both projection domain and image domain was conducted and the influences of segmentation method, mismatched attenuation coefficients, and spectrum model as well as parameter selection were also investigated. Results: Results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce scatter artifacts and recover the correct HU in either projection domain or image domain. For the MC thorax phantom study, four-components segmentation yields the best results, while the results of three-components segmentation are still acceptable. The parameters (iteration number K and weight β) affect the accuracy of the scatter correction and the results get improved as K and β increase. It was found that variations in attenuation coefficient accuracies only slightly impact the performance of the proposed processing. For the Catphan phantom data, the mean value over all pixels in the residual image is reduced from −21.8 to −0.2 HU and 0.7 HU for projection domain and image domain, respectively. The contrast of the in vivo human images is greatly improved after correction. Conclusions: The software-based technique has a number of advantages, such as high computational efficiency and accuracy, and the capability of performing scatter correction without modifying the clinical workflow (i.e., no extra scan/measurement data are needed) or modifying the imaging hardware. When implemented practically, this should improve the accuracy of CBCT image quantitation and significantly impact CBCT-based interventional procedures and adaptive radiation therapy.
TL;DR: Acuros CTS enables a fast and accurate calculation of scatter images by deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation thus offering a computationally attractive alternative to Monte Carlo methods.
Abstract: Purpose To describe Acuros® CTS, a new software tool for rapidly and accurately estimating scatter in x-ray projection images by deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). Methods The LBTE describes the behavior of particles as they interact with an object across spatial, energy, and directional (propagation) domains. Acuros CTS deterministically solves the LBTE by modeling photon transport associated with an x-ray projection in three main steps: (a) Ray tracing photons from the x-ray source into the object where they experience their first scattering event and form scattering sources. (b) Propagating photons from their first scattering sources across the object in all directions to form second scattering sources, then repeating this process until all high-order scattering sources are computed using the source iteration method. (c) Ray-tracing photons from scattering sources within the object to the detector, accounting for the detector's energy and anti-scatter grid responses. To make this process computationally tractable, a combination of analytical and discrete methods is applied. The three domains are discretized using the Linear Discontinuous Finite Elements, Multigroup, and Discrete Ordinates methods, respectively, which confer the ability to maintain the accuracy of a continuous solution. Furthermore, through the implementation in CUDA, we sought to exploit the parallel computing capabilities of graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve the speeds required for clinical utilization. Acuros CTS was validated against Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations using two digital phantoms: (a) a water phantom containing lung, air, and bone inserts (WLAB phantom) and (b) a pelvis phantom derived from a clinical CT dataset. For these studies, we modeled the TrueBeam® (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) kV imaging system with a source energy of 125 kVp. The imager comprised a 600 μm-thick Cesium Iodide (CsI) scintillator and a 10:1 one-dimensional anti-scatter grid. For the WLAB studies, the full-fan geometry without a bowtie filter was used (with and without the anti-scatter grid). For the pelvis phantom studies, a half-fan geometry with bowtie was used (with the anti-scatter grid). Scattered and primary photon fluences and energies deposited in the detector were recorded. Results The Acuros CTS and Monte Carlo results demonstrated excellent agreement. For the WLAB studies, the average percent difference between the Monte Carlo- and Acuros-generated scattered photon fluences at the face of the detector was -0.7%. After including the detector response, the average percent differences between the Monte Carlo- and Acuros-generated scatter fractions (SF) were -0.1% without the grid and 0.6% with the grid. For the digital pelvis simulation, the Monte Carlo- and Acuros-generated SFs agreed to within 0.1% on average, despite the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs) being as high as 5.5. The Acuros CTS computation time for each scatter image was ~1 s using a single GPU. Conclusions Acuros CTS enables a fast and accurate calculation of scatter images by deterministically solving the LBTE thus offering a computationally attractive alternative to Monte Carlo methods. Part II describes the application of Acuros CTS to scatter correction of CBCT scans on the TrueBeam system.
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: This poster presents a meta-modelling architecture suitable for 3D image recognition and 3D signal-gauging and describes three algorithms that can be used to characterize the 3D structure of the eye.
Abstract: Cooperating Organizations APS—American Physiological Society (United States) • CARS—Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (Germany) • The Society for Imaging Science and Technology • Medical Image Perception Society (United States) • Radiological Society of North America (United States) Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine (United States) • SMI—The Society for Molecular Imaging • The DICOM Standards Committee (United States)