Bio: Jorge Urrutia-Mosquera is an academic researcher from Universidad del Desarrollo. The author has contributed to research in topics: Air quality index & NOx. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 3 publications receiving 8 citations.
TL;DR: The authors formulate a bi-objective distribution model for urban trips constrained by origins and destinations while maximizing entropy, and develop a flexible and consistent approach in which the estimatio- gatio-...
Abstract: We formulate a bi-objective distribution model for urban trips constrained by origins and destinations while maximizing entropy. We develop a flexible and consistent approach in which the estimatio...
TL;DR: In this paper, a variation of the Schelling model is explored, where the original model works with two groups, and a third social group is incorporated to which it is indifferent to contact with the other two groups.
Abstract: Usually, segregation is conceptualized as the consequence of people’s preferences to live close to people similar to them. However, evidence shows something different. While it is true that people want to have neighbors such as themselves, the intensity of this preference –the proportion of similar neighbors they desire to have – varies among individuals and groups. Nonetheless, following Schelling (1971), the aggregated result of people’s interaction in the land market generates levels of segregation higher than individual preferences. This article explores a variation of the Schelling model: While the original model works with two groups, this paper incorporates a third social group, to which it is indifferent to contact with the other two groups. Results show that the presence of this third group generates a decrease of levels of segregation in the city, favoring residential integration.
TL;DR: In this article, a stated preference experiment in Santiago of Chile, specifically built to collect individuals' preferences for incentives to low emission vehicles, a mixed logit model was estimated and results used to compute willingness to pay.
Abstract: Due to the high emissions produced by the transportation sector, one of the most implemented policies worldwide is the economic incentive to purchase electric and hybrid vehicles. The adoption of these policies in developing countries is scarce or null and there are no studies that investigate the impact of economic incentives in the potential demand for low emission vehicles. This paper covers this gap. Using data from a stated preference experiment in Santiago of Chile, specifically built to collect individuals’ preferences for incentives to low emission vehicles, a mixed logit model was estimated and results used to compute willingness to pay. In parallel, a contingent evaluation experiment was conducted to elicit individuals’ willingness to pay under two specific policies, involving different ways to provide fiscal incentives. Results shows that individuals are more sensitive to autonomy and incentives in the case of electric vehicles in relation to conventional/hybrid type. Likewise, results show that for an exemption from VAT payment and any type of sales and purchase tax, 72% of individuals would be willing to purchase an electric vehicle, and 76% of individuals would be willing to purchase a hybrid vehicle, waiting for an adequate incentive policy for it.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used official data from the Chilean Government's national air quality information system (SINCA) for the Santiago metropolitan region and estimated the impact of the confinement by COVID-19 on the ambient concentration average values of NOx gases and particulate matter PM2.5.
Abstract: Different initiatives have been implemented to improve air quality in large cities, such as encouraging travel by sustainable modes of transport, promoting electro-mobility, or the car-free day. However, to date, we have not found statistics that indicate to what extent the concentration levels of particulate matter PM2.5, PM10 and nitrogen oxides (NOx) pollutants decrease as a result of public policy. We used official data from the Chilean Government’s national air quality information system (SINCA) for the Santiago metropolitan region and estimated the impact of the confinement by COVID-19 on the ambient concentration average values of NOx gases and particulate matter PM2.5 and PM10, which are the main air pollutants produced by the transport sector after CO2. We found that in general there are significant differences between the average levels of gas emissions for 2020 compared to 2019. In particular, we found that, for the months of total confinement May-July, the monthly average levels decreased between 7% and 19% for particulate matter PM2.5, between 18% and 50% for PM10 and between 34% and 48% for NOx. With the return to the new normality, these improvements in ambient concentration levels may be affected by the increase in private transport trips, due to the reluctance of citizens to return to mass public transport. Our results, therefore, represent the maximum impact that can be expected in reducing ambient concentration levels in the city of Santiago of Chile when a mobility reduction of gasoline vehicles is implemented. The reduction of PM2.5, PM10 and NOx was no more than 7%, 18% and 34%, respectively. The average concentration of PM2.5 decreased by 7–19% compared to previous years. The average concentration of PM10 decreased by 18% and 50% compared to previous years. Concentrating commuting on public transport would help reduce levels of PM10 and PM2.5.
18 Jul 2019
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze how lifestyle migration has impacted on the sociocultural segregation of a historically homogeneous community in socioeconomic terms, showing that migration has induced the gentrification of the area and also new forms of social distinction.
Abstract: espanolBasados en el estudio de un sector suburbano de Pucon, este trabajo busca analizar como la migracion por estilo de vida ha impactado en la segregacion sociocultural de una comunidad historicamente homogenea en terminos socioeconomicos. A traves de entrevistas y observacion participante, los resultados muestran que la migracion ha inducido la gentrificacion del area y tambien ha generado nuevas formas de distincion social. Sin embargo, los resultados muestran que la segregacion sociocultural no es consecuencia per se de la diversidad socioeconomica del sector, sino mas bien de los distintos reclamos de autenticidad y estilos de vida que conviven en la zona. Sobre esta base se argumenta que la segregacion no corresponde a un fenomeno estructural, sino que esta anclada en las relaciones entre sujetos y, por consiguiente, abierta a transformaciones, especialmente cuando se trata de comunidades suburbanas amenazadas que valoran las amenidades naturales y se oponen a la mercantilizacion de la naturaleza que las circunda. EnglishBased on the study of a suburban sector of Pucon, this work seeks to analyze how lifestyle migration has impacted on the sociocultural segregation of a historically homogeneous community in socioeconomic terms. Through interviews and participant observation, the results show that migration has induced the gentrification of the area and also new forms of social distinction. However, the results also show that the sociocultural segregation is not a consequence per se of the socioeconomic diversity of the area, but rather of the different claims of authenticity and lifestyles that coexist in it. On this basis, it is argued that segregation is not a structural phenomenon but is rather anchored in the relationships between subjects and, therefore, open to transformations, especially when dealing with threatened suburban communities that value natural amenities and oppose the commodification of nature.
TL;DR: In this article, symbolic representations of social-spatial differences help to maintain social stratification within Santiago de Chile, and several focus group discussions illuminated the app's effect on socio-economic stratification.
Abstract: This article examines how symbolic representations of social-spatial differences help to maintain social stratification within Santiago de Chile. Several focus group discussions illuminated the app...
21 Sep 2020
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the families' decision speeches in two cases, formed by three different types of nearby schools, where there are significant differences in the socioeconomic composition of the student body.
Abstract: Latin America is the region with the highest levels of inequality, a fact that is reflected in their school systems. In the frame of a systematic application of market policies, the high levels of school segregation in Chile are highlighted. This phenomenon is related to different factors, one of them being the behavior of the families when choosing a school. This study analyzes the families’ decision speeches in two cases, formed by three different types of nearby schools –municipal, private subsidized and private non-subsidized– where there are significant differences in the socioeconomic composition of the student body. The cases show, therefore, the existence of school segregation at a “micro-level”. The methodology of the study is qualitative. The data was obtained by semi structured interviews of 54 mothers or fathers. The results show that the “free choice” of schools is limited by the economic resources, which restricts the options in the “school market”. Likewise, the existence of socio-cultural elements determining the selection process of the families according to their socioeconomic level and other factors was confirmed. It is concluded that the process of school choice is a factor that produces school segregation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors deal with the temporal transferability of the parameters of the gravity model of trip distribution and focus on the trade-off between spatial resolution and data requirements.
Abstract: This study deals with the temporal transferability of the parameters of the gravity model of trip distribution and focuses on the trade-off between spatial resolution and data requirements. The models are calibrated using O–D matrices constructed from the three most recent Lyon household travel surveys (1985, 1995 and 2006) and generalised travel time data from coded transport networks for the three dates. Calibration has been conducted for three different zoning levels which have been chosen in line with common practice. The parameters obtained from model calibration are then applied to estimate O–D matrices at a later date and the results are compared using indicators that have been established for the zoning level applied in calibration, but also using indicators that have been aggregated in two different ways: aggregation to create larger zones or distance segments. Our findings confirm our initial intuition: the choice of zoning is fundamentally important. Moreover, in the best case, the parameters of the model change, but not sufficiently for the goodness-of-fit of the "predicted" model to be very different from that of the matrix obtained during calibration. It is possible to use the gravity model for forecasting purposes, but on condition that the goals of the study are compatible with the level of error in the reproduction of the observed matrices. If the zoning is either too coarse or too fine grained, forecasting performance is compromised.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demarcate the need to redefine the dominant model enunciated, to move towards a modeling contextualized by the structural and conjunctural deployments that operate on the decision process from the tensions produced by complex contexts.
Abstract: espanolLas concepciones y modelos dominantes de los procesos de decision organizacional, de base determinista y reduccionista, han sido puestos en entredicho por las dinamicas propias de los contextos complejos que atraviesan las organizaciones. Tradicionalmente el baremo considerado para analizar dichas decisiones era el grado de racionalidad aplicado en el proceso, desplegandose asi decisiones bajo racionalidad, racionalidad limitada o incertidumbre, de acuerdo a la posibilidad de contar con informacion plena, sesgada o escasa en el analisis y proceso decisorio especifico. El objetivo de este trabajo es demarcar la necesidad de redefinir el modelo dominante enunciado, para avanzar hacia un modelado contextualizado por los despliegues estructurales y coyunturales que operan sobre el proceso decisorio, a partir de las tensiones producidas por los contextos complejos.La metodologia utilizada se desarrollo bajo un enfoque cualitativo mediante entrevistas en profundidad con titulares, funcionarios, ejecutivos y gerentes de empresas de distintos sectores, areas de desempeno, publicas o privadas, con o sin fin de lucro.Los resultados principales obtenidos apuntan al desarrollo de un proceso contingente decisional que incorpora las tramas culturales y vinculares de la organizacion en el proceso decisorio, de acuerdo a aspectos estructuras y coyunturales del proceso de gestion organizacional.Las implicaciones de este estudio tienden a colaborar con la dificultad que encuentran los futuros emprendedores y directivos de organizaciones en desarrollar procesos decisorios que se adecuen a las continuas demandas cambiantes del contexto sistemico de insercion de las organizaciones. EnglishThe dominant conceptions and models of the processes of organizational decision-making, of deterministic and reductionist base, have been challenged by the dynamics of the complex contexts that the organizations are going through. Traditionally, the scale considered to analyze these decisions was the degree of rationality applied in the process, thus deploying decisions under rationality, limited rationality or uncertainty, according to the possibility of having full, biased or scarce information in the analysis and specific decision-making process. The objective of this paper is to demarcate the need to redefine the dominant model enunciated, to move towards a modeling contextualized by the structural and conjunctural deployments that operate on the decision process, from the tensions produced by complex contexts.The methodology used was developed under a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews with owners, officers, executives and managers of companies from different sectors, performance areas, public or private, with or without profit. The main results obtained show the importance of the development of a contingent participatory decision-making process, which incorporates the cultural and linking interactions of the organization, deploying a certain decentering on the figure of the autonomous decision-maker.The implications of this study tend to contribute to the difficulty encountered by future entrepreneurs and managers of organizations in developing decision-making processes that adapt to the continuous changing demands of the systemic context of insertion of organizations.