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Author

Joseph H. Carens

Other affiliations: University of Pennsylvania
Bio: Joseph H. Carens is an academic researcher from University of Toronto. The author has contributed to research in topics: Citizenship & Immigration. The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 57 publications receiving 3787 citations. Previous affiliations of Joseph H. Carens include University of Pennsylvania.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that many poor and oppressed people wish to leave their countries of origin in the third world to come to affluent Western societies and that there is little justification for keeping them out.
Abstract: Many poor and oppressed people wish to leave their countries of origin in the third world to come to affluent Western societies. This essay argues that there is little justification for keeping them out. The essay draws on three contemporary approaches to political theory — the Rawlsian, the Nozickean, and the utilitarian — to construct arguments for open borders. The fact that all three theories converge upon the same results on this issue, despite their significant disagreements on others, strengthens the case for open borders and reveals its roots in our deep commitment to respect all human beings as free and equal moral persons. The final part of the essay considers communitarian objections to this conclusion, especially those of Michael Walzer.

1,051 citations

Book
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors map the Ethics of Immigration and present a theory of social membership and the claim of community in the context of open borders, based on the Theory of Social Membership.
Abstract: Acknowledgments 1 Introduction: Mapping the Ethics of Immigration PART I: WHO BELONGS? 2 Birthright Citizenship 3 Naturalization 4 Beyond Legal Citizenship to Inclusion 5 Permanent Residents 6 Temporary Workers 7 Irregular Migrants 8 The Theory of Social Membership PART II: WHO SHOULD GET IN? 9 Ordinary Admissions 10 Refugees 11 The Case for Open Borders 12 The Claims of Community 13 Conclusion Appendix: Presuppositions and Political Theory References Notes Index

544 citations

Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: The case of Quebec Muslim Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Justice and the Limits of Toleration Multiple Political Memberships, Overlapping National Identities, and the Dimensions of Citizenship Citizenship and the Challenge of Aboriginal Self-Government: Is Deep Diversity Desirable? Democracy and Respect for Difference: The Case of Fiji Conclusion as mentioned in this paper
Abstract: Introduction: Contextual Political Theory, Comparative Perspectives, and Justice as Evenhandedness Complex Justice, Cultural Difference, and Political Community Liberalism and Culture Distinguishing Between Difference and Domination: Reflections on the Relation Between Pluralism and Equality Cultural Adaptation and the Integration of Immigrants: The Case of Quebec Muslim Minorities in Liberal Democracies: Justice and the Limits of Toleration Multiple Political Memberships, Overlapping National Identities, and the Dimensions of Citizenship Citizenship and the Challenge of Aboriginal Self-Government: Is Deep Diversity Desirable? Democracy and Respect for Difference: The Case of Fiji Conclusion

370 citations

Book
01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Carens as discussed by the authors argues that old standards of neutrality and even justice as fairness tend to generate undesirable outcomes, such as having Sundays as a "common pause day" clearly violates neutrality in a society where Sunday is not a day of worship for many.
Abstract: With Culture, Citizenship and Community: A Contextualist Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness, Joseph Carens has entered the ranks of those distinguished liberal theorists who seek to rework liberal theory and practice in order to save what is best about liberalism while modifying some of its received doctrines in order better to meet new challenges. Like Isaiah Berlin and other great renegade liberals, Carens puts pressure on liberalism's paradoxes. In certain contexts, in particular in the Canadian context, liberalism must make room for measures that are themelves illiberal, he says (7). Liberals must diversify their conception of citizenship in order to further the goals of liberal citizenship. Sometimes the goals of neutrality, like fairness, are best pursued by way of non-neutral practices and procedures. In particular, Carens argues, liberalism's new multicultural contexts ensure that old standards of neutrality and even justice as fairness tend to generate undesirable outcomes. For example, having Sundays as a "common pause day" clearly violates neutrality in a society where Sunday is not a day of worship for many. Neutrality would require that we abolish the common pause day or choose a day for common pause, like Wednesday, that has no particular significance for anyone. Then all are treated equally and, from the perspective of neutrality, also fairly. But this outcome leaves no one better off. We can do better by aspiring to fairness rather than to formal equality, Carens argues, and fairness in this instance requires "evenhandedness in the form of comparable support" (13). That would mean allowing time off for those who worship on other days and allowing those who close their businesses on another day for religious reasons to be open on Sundays. The requirements of evenhandedness are not always clear. Arguments need to be made, contexts have to be investigated. But the principle of evenhandedness, invoked by many minority communities seeking to make room for themselves in Christian societies, directs us to attend to different sorts of considerations than are privileged by the principle of neutrality (12-13).

238 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that the integration of immigrants depends upon a process of mutual, but asymmetrical adaptation and that it is precisely because the immigrants have to adapt more that the receiving society bears a greater responsibility to take steps to promote equality between the immigrants and the existing population.
Abstract: This paper considers normative questions about the integration of legally resident immigrants into contemporary liberal democratic states. First, I ask to what extent immigrants should enjoy the same rights as citizens and on what terms they should have access to citizenship itself. I defend two general principles: (1) differential treatment requires justi.cation; (2) the longer immigrants have lived in the receiving society, the stronger their claim to equal rights and eventually to full citizenship. Second, I explore additional forms of economic, cultural, social, and political integration. I argue that the integration of immigrants depends upon a process of mutual, but asymmetrical adaptation and that it is precisely because the immigrants have to adapt more that the receiving society bears a greater responsibility to take steps to promote equality between the immigrants and the existing population.

128 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the study of undocumented migration as an epistemological, methodological, and political problem, in order to then formulate it as a theoretical problem, and argue that it is necessary also to produce historically informed accounts of the sociopolitical processes of "illegalization" themselves, which can be characterized as the legal production.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract This article strives to meet two challenges. As a review, it provides a critical discussion of the scholarship concerning undocumented migration, with a special emphasis on ethnographically informed works that foreground significant aspects of the everyday life of undocumented migrants. But another key concern here is to formulate more precisely the theoretical status of migrant “illegality” and deportability in order that further research related to undocumented migration may be conceptualized more rigorously. This review considers the study of migrant “illegality” as an epistemological, methodological, and political problem, in order to then formulate it as a theoretical problem. The article argues that it is insufficient to examine the “illegality” of undocumented migration only in terms of its consequences and that it is necessary also to produce historically informed accounts of the sociopolitical processes of “illegalization” themselves, which can be characterized as the legal production ...

2,177 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1994-Ethics
TL;DR: There has been an explosion of interest in the concept of citizenship among political theorists in the 1990s as discussed by the authors, and there are a number of reasons for this renewed interest in citizenship.
Abstract: There has been an explosion of interest in the concept of citizenship among political theorists In 1978, it could be confidently stated that "the concept of citizenship has gone out of fashion among political thinkers" (van Gunsteren 1978, p 9) Fifteen years later, citizenship has become the "buzz word" among thinkers on all points of the political spectrum (Heater 1990, p 293; Vogel and Moran 1991, p x) There are a number of reasons for this renewed interest in citizenship in the 1990s At the level of theory, it is a natural evolution in political discourse because the concept of citizenship seems to integrate the demands ofjustice and community membership-the central concepts of political philosophy in the 1970s and 1980s, respectively Citizenship is intimately linked to ideas of individual entitlement on the one hand and of attachment to a particular community on the other Thus it may help clarify what is really at stake in the debate between liberals and communitarians Interest in citizenship has also been sparked by a number of recent political events and trends throughout the world-increasing voter apathy and long-term welfare dependency in the United States, the resurgence of nationalist movements in Eastern Europe, the stresses created by an increasingly multicultural and multiracial population in Western Europe, the backlash against the welfare state in Thatcher's England, the failure of environmental policies that rely on voluntary citizen cooperation, and so forth These events have made clear that the health and stability of a modern democracy depends, not only on the justice of its 'basic structure' but also on the qualities and attitudes of its citizens:' for example,

1,097 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In his seminal work "The Clash of Civilizations" and the "Remaking of World Order" as discussed by the authors, Professor Huntington argued provocatively and presciently that with the end of the cold war, ''civilizations" were replacing ideologies as the new fault lines in international politics.
Abstract: In his seminal work \"The Clash of Civilizations\" and the \"Remaking of World Order,\" Samuel Huntington argued provocatively and presciently that with the end of the cold war, \"civilizations\" were replacing ideologies as the new fault lines in international politics.His astute analysis has proven correct. Now Professor Huntington turns his attention from international affairs to our domestic cultural rifts as he examines the impact other civilizations and their values are having on our own country.America was founded by British settlers who brought with them a distinct culture including the English language, Protestant values, individualism, religious commitment, and respect for law. The waves of immigrants that later came to the United States gradually accepted these values and assimilated into America's Anglo-Protestant culture. More recently, however, national identity has been eroded by the problems of assimilating massive numbers of primarily Hispanic immigrants, bilingualism, multiculturalism, the devaluation of citizenship, and the \"denationalization\" of American elites.September 11 brought a revival of American patriotism and a renewal of American identity. But already there are signs that this revival is fading, even though in the post-September 11 world, Americans face unprecedented challenges to our security.\"Who Are We?\" shows the need for us to reassert the core values that make us Americans. Nothing less than our national identity is at stake.Once again Samuel Huntington has written an important book that is certain to provoke a lively debate and to shape our national conversation about who we are.\\

779 citations

Book
18 May 2001
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a theoretical framework for indigenous mobilization in Latin America and present a case study of the Peruvian anomaly and subnational variation of the Kataristas and their legacy.
Abstract: Part I. Theoretical Framing: 1. Questions, approaches, and cases 2. Citizenship regimes, the state, and ethnic cleavages 3. The argument: indigenous mobilization in Latin America Part II. The Cases: 4. Ecuador: Latin America's strongest indigenous movement 5. The Ecuadorian Andes and ECUARUNARI 6. The Ecuadorian Amazon and CONFENAIE 7. Forming the National Confederation, CONAIE 8. Bolivia: strong regional movements 9. The Bolivian Andes: the Kataristas and their legacy 10. The Bolivian Amazon 11. Peru: weak national movements and subnational variation 12. Peru. Ecuador, and Bolivia: most similar cases 13. No national indigenous movement: explaining the Peruvian anomaly 14. Explaining subnational variation 15. Conclusion: 16. Democracy and the postliberal challenge in Latin America.

768 citations

Book
21 May 2007
TL;DR: Acknowledgments ix INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE: Multiculturalism without Culture 11 CHAPTER TWO: Between Culture and Cosmos 42 CHAPTER THREE: What's Wrong with Cultural Defence?
Abstract: Acknowledgments ix INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE: Multiculturalism without Culture 11 CHAPTER TWO: Between Culture and Cosmos 42 CHAPTER THREE: What's Wrong with Cultural Defence? 73 CHAPTER FOUR: Autonomy, Coercion, and Constraint 100 CHAPTER FIVE: Exit and Voice 133 CHAPTER SIX: Multiculturalism without Groups? 158 Bibliography 181 Index 191

672 citations