Other affiliations: Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp
Bio: Jozef Vercruysse is an academic researcher from Ghent University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ostertagia ostertagi & Population. The author has an hindex of 65, co-authored 479 publications receiving 16869 citations. Previous affiliations of Jozef Vercruysse include Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Revised and new methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of ruminants, horses and pigs are provided here with the purpose that they are evaluated internationally to establish whether they could in the future be recommended by the WAAVP.
Abstract: Before revised World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines on the detection of anthelmintic resistance can be produced, validation of modified and new methods is required in laboratories in different parts of the world. There is a great need for improved methods of detection of anthelmintic resistance particularly for the detection of macrocyclic lactone resistance and for the detection of resistant nematodes in cattle. Therefore, revised and new methods are provided here for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of ruminants, horses and pigs as a basis for discussion and with the purpose that they are evaluated internationally to establish whether they could in the future be recommended by the WAAVP. The interpretation of the faecal egg count reduction test has been modified and suggestions given on its use with persistent anthelmintics and continuous release devices. An egg hatch test for benzimidazole (BZ) resistance is described. A microagar larval development test for the detection of benzimidazole and levamisole resistance provides third stage larvae for the identification of resistant worms. The sensitivity of these two tests can be increased by using discriminating doses rather than LD(50) values. Details are given of a PCR based test for the analysis of benzimidazole resistance in strongyles of sheep and goats, horses and cattle. Although promising for ruminant trichostrongyles, quantitative determination of gene frequency using real time PCR requires further development before PCR tests will be used in the field. Apart from faecal egg count reduction tests there are currently no satisfactory tests for macrocylic lactone resistance despite the great importance of this subject. Except for treatment and slaughter trials there are no validated tests for fasciolicide resistance or for the detection of resistance in cestodes.
TL;DR: This second edition of the W.A.V.P. anthelmintic guidelines for ruminants includes updated guidance on standard parasitological procedures, dose titration, dose confirmation and clinical trials, and provides guidelines for evaluating products for efficacy against anthel Mintic resistant parasites, persistence of activity and prophylactic activity.
Abstract: The first edition of the W.A.A.V.P. anthelmintic guidelines for ruminants was published in 1982. Since then improved parasitological procedures have been developed, new therapeutic and prophylactic products have appeared requiring different test methods, and registration authorities are requesting more detailed record keeping and data validation. This second edition addresses these developments and fulfills the original goal of publishing guidelines for high quality, scientifically valid testing standards for trials that would be accepted as proof of efficacy by registration authorities regardless of country of origin. This second edition includes updated guidance on standard parasitological procedures, dose titration, dose confirmation and clinical trials, and provides guidelines for evaluating products for efficacy against anthelmintic resistant parasites, persistence of activity and prophylactic activity. Tests for efficacy against nematodes, trematodes and cestodes are included.
TL;DR: A Bayesian analysis framework offers the possibility to combine prior opinion with experimental data to more accurately estimate the real prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard.
Abstract: Several diagnostic techniques are used to estimate the prevalence of the zoonotic tapeworm Taenia solium in pigs, but none of these tests are perfect, making interpretation of results difficult. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate values for the prevalence and diagnostic test characteristic of porcine cysticercosis by combining results of four imperfect tests. Village pigs (N = 868), slaughtered in Lusaka (Zambia), were bled, and tongue and routine meat inspected-, and serum antibody and parasite antigen concentrations were determined by ELISA. A model. based on a multinomial distribution and including all possible interactions between the individual tests required 3 1 parameters to be estimated, but actually allowed only 15 parameters (i.e. had 15 degrees of freedom) to be estimated. Therefore, prior expert opinion on specificity and (in)-dependence of the tests was entered in the model, resulting in a reduction of the number of parameters to be estimated. 9 The estimated prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 0.642 (95% confidence interval 0.54-0.91). The performances of the tests were (sensitivity (se) -specificity (sp)): tongue inspection (se 0.210-sp 1.000), meat inspection (se 0.221 -sp 1.000), Ab-ELISA (se 0.358-sp 0.917), Ag-ELISA (se 0.867-sp 0.947). To validate the estimates obtained from the model we performed a second study: 65 randomly purchased Zambian village pigs were bled for serum antibody and antigen determination, their tongue and meat inspected; and in addition, the carcasses were dissected for total cysticercus counts (gold standard). Cysticerci were found in 3 1 pigs (prevalence 0.477, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.60). overlapping with the estimated prevalence in the first stud. Sensitivity and specificity values obtained for they aforementioned tests in this study were in agreement with those estimated. A Bayesian analysis framework offers the possibility to combine prior opinion with experimental data to more accurately estimate the real prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. (C) 2003 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghent University1, World Health Organization2, University of Nottingham3, Washington University in St. Louis4, University of Yaoundé I5, Pasteur Institute6, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation7, National University of Salta8, University of Queensland9, Jimma University10, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation11
TL;DR: A minimum FECR rate of 95% for A. lumbricoides, 70% for hookworm, and 50% for T. trichiura is expected in MEB-dependent PC programs, which may indicate the development of potential drug resistance.
Abstract: Background: The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura andNecator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol. Methodology/Principal Findings : Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2%) followed by hookworms (87.8%) and T. trichiura (46.6%). There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country), by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment). The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5%) and hookworms (94.8%) but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%), and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country), but not by sex or age. Conclusions/Significance: Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means) of >95% for A. lumbricoidesand >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for this parasite.
TL;DR: The understanding of the effects of helminth infections and control practices on productivity and the diagnostic tools that can inform on this are reviewed.
Abstract: Global agriculture will be required to intensify production from a shrinking natural resource base. Helminth infections of ruminants are a major constraint on efficient livestock production. The current challenge is to develop diagnostic methods that detect the production impact of helminth infections on farms in order to target control measures and contribute to the global challenge of preserving food security. We review here our understanding of the effects of helminth infections and control practices on productivity and the diagnostic tools that can inform on this. By combining advances in helminth laboratory diagnostics and animal health economics, sustainable management of helminth infections can be integrated into the whole-farm economic context.
TL;DR: Recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy are presented.
Abstract: Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy.
TL;DR: It is concluded that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.
Abstract: An estimated 779 million people are at risk of schistosomiasis, of whom 106 million (13.6%) live in irrigation schemes or in close proximity to large dam reservoirs. We identified 58 studies that examined the relation between water resources development projects and schistosomiasis, primarily in African settings. We present a systematic literature review and meta-analysis with the following objectives: (1) to update at-risk populations of schistosomiasis and number of people infected in endemic countries, and (2) to quantify the risk of water resources development and management on schistosomiasis. Using 35 datasets from 24 African studies, our meta-analysis showed pooled random risk ratios of 2.4 and 2.6 for urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively, among people living adjacent to dam reservoirs. The risk ratio estimate for studies evaluating the effect of irrigation on urinary schistosomiasis was in the range 0.02-7.3 (summary estimate 1.1) and that on intestinal schistosomiasis in the range 0.49-23.0 (summary estimate 4.7). Geographic stratification showed important spatial differences, idiosyncratic to the type of water resources development. We conclude that the development and management of water resources is an important risk factor for schistosomiasis, and hence strategies to mitigate negative effects should become integral parts in the planning, implementation, and operation of future water projects.
01 Jan 2016
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TL;DR: New insights into fundamental helminth biology are accumulating through newly completed genome projects and the nascent application of transgenesis and RNA interference technologies, which should one day translate into a new and robust pipeline of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines for targeting parasitic worms that infect humans.
Abstract: Helminths are parasitic worms. They are the most common infectious agents of humans in developing countries and produce a global burden of disease that exceeds better-known conditions, including malaria and tuberculosis. As we discuss here, new insights into fundamental helminth biology are accumulating through newly completed genome projects and the nascent application of transgenesis and RNA interference technologies. At the same time, our understanding of the dynamics of the transmission of helminths and the mechanisms of the Th2-type immune responses that are induced by infection with these parasitic worms has increased markedly. Ultimately, these advances in molecular and medical helminth biology should one day translate into a new and robust pipeline of drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines for targeting parasitic worms that infect humans.
TL;DR: There is need for increased support for schistosomiasis control in the most severely affected countries, which are among the least developed whose health systems face difficulties to provide basic care at the primary health level.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis is being successfully controlled in many countries but remains a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected, mostly in Africa. Few countries in this region have undertaken successful and sustainable control programmes. The construction of water schemes to meet the power and agricultural requirements for development have lead to increasing transmission, especially of Schistosoma mansoni. Increasing population and movement have contributed to increased transmission and introduction of schistosomiasis to new areas. Most endemic countries are among the least developed whose health systems face difficulties to provide basic care at the primary health level. Constraints to control include, the lack of political commitment and infrastructure for public health interventions. Another constraint is that available anti-schistosomal drugs are expensive and the cost of individual treatment is a high proportion of the per capita drug budgets. There is need for increased support for schistosomiasis control in the most severely affected countries.