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Jual Keranda Jenazah Kota Gunungsitoli

Other affiliations: Sichuan University
Bio: Jual Keranda Jenazah Kota Gunungsitoli is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Creep & Composite material. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 1 citations. Previous affiliations of Jual Keranda Jenazah Kota Gunungsitoli include Sichuan University.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors used 3D discrete element models to predict the mechanical response of crumb rubber-modified (CRM) asphalt pavements under traffic loads using three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM).
Abstract: This study aims to predict the mechanical response of crumb rubber-modified (CRM) asphalt pavements under traffic loads using three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM). First, irregular-shaped aggregates were generated in Python language, and discrete element models of six different asphalt layers, which considered the temperature gradient and fatigue damage, were established using 3D DEM. Then, model parameters were obtained through the uniaxial creep test for asphalt mastics at different temperatures. The fatigue damage was implemented by introducing a damage factor into the Burgers model. Finally, three mechanical response parameters (namely, permanent deformation, shear stress and transverse strain) of the six asphalt layers under traffic loads were analysed and compared. Results show that the mechanical response of CRM asphalt layers under traffic loads is significantly influenced by number of repeated loads, temperature, and asphalt layer materials. The shear stress and transverse strain at the wheel centre vary along the depth of asphalt layers, and the middle layer is the principal area of shear stresses in asphalt pavements.

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TL;DR: In this article , a new explicit three-dimensional generalised Kelvin (GK) contact model formulation for the discrete element method is proposed for asphalt materials and validated in uniaxial tension-compression sinusoidal tests for predicting the dynamic modulus (|E∗|) and phase angle (ϕ) of these composites at a frequency range of 1-10 Hz at 20∘C.
Abstract: Rigid particle models based on the discrete element method (DEM) have been adopted to model creep, fracture, and the viscoelastic behaviour of asphalt mixtures considering an irregular micro-structure and particle contacts. Within a DEM framework, the Burgers contact model, which is known to have a narrow frequency and temperature range, is usually adopted to model viscoelastic properties. In this study, a new explicit three-dimensional generalised Kelvin (GK) contact model formulation for the DEM model is proposed for asphalt materials. The model is implemented following two different methodologies (GK1 and GK2). The models are validated in uniaxial tension-compression sinusoidal tests for predicting the dynamic modulus (|E∗|) and phase angle (ϕ) of these composites at a frequency range of 1–10 Hz at 20∘C. Four mixtures are investigated based on the modelling of their mastic. The influence of the GK contact parameters on the dynamic response of mastics is assessed. Results show that κm has an important influence on both rheological properties and that ηm can be used for small adjustments focussing on the predicted phase angle. Moreover, it is shown that a viscoelastic contact model should be adopted to simulate aggregate-to-mastic contacts in mixtures. As expected, the response obtained for both GK models is the same but the simulations with the GK1 are 14% faster. In addition, the response predicted with the proposed GK contact model is compared with the response predicted with a Burgers contact model. The DEM predictions obtained for the GK model are more accurate. For mastics, the average errors for |E∗| and ϕ when adopting the GK model (Burgers) are 2.40% (3.46%) and 3.64% (4.17%), respectively. For mixtures, the average errors for |E∗| for the GK model (Burgers) are 7.00% (7.92%). The proposed contact model greatly enhances the DEM ability to simulate the viscoelasticity of asphalt materials.