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Author

Juan C. Vasquez

Bio: Juan C. Vasquez is an academic researcher from Aalborg University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Microgrid & Voltage droop. The author has an hindex of 67, co-authored 426 publication(s) receiving 24605 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Juan C. Vasquez include University of Technology, Sydney & Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2009
TL;DR: The hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to MGs is presented and results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Abstract: DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to microgrids. The hierarchical control proposed consist of three levels: i) the primary control is based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) the secondary control allows restoring the deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchical-controlled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

3,466 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents a review of control strategies, stability analysis, and stabilization techniques for dc microgrids (MGs). Overall control is systematically classified into local and coordinated control levels according to respective functionalities in each level. As opposed to local control, which relies only on local measurements, some line of communication between units needs to be made available in order to achieve the coordinated control. Depending on the communication method, three basic coordinated control strategies can be distinguished, i.e., decentralized, centralized, and distributed control. Decentralized control can be regarded as an extension of the local control since it is also based exclusively on local measurements. In contrast, centralized and distributed control strategies rely on digital communication technologies. A number of approaches using these three coordinated control strategies to achieve various control objectives are reviewed in this paper. Moreover, properties of dc MG dynamics and stability are discussed. This paper illustrates that tightly regulated point-of-load converters tend to reduce the stability margins of the system since they introduce negative impedances, which can potentially oscillate with lightly damped power supply input filters. It is also demonstrated that how the stability of the whole system is defined by the relationship of the source and load impedances, referred to as the minor loop gain. Several prominent specifications for the minor loop gain are reviewed. Finally, a number of active stabilization techniques are presented.

822 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to conceive the secondary control in droop-controlled microgrids (MGs). The conventional approach is based on restoring the frequency and amplitude deviations produced by the local droop controllers by using an MG central controller (MGCC). A distributed networked control system is used in order to implement a distributed secondary control (DSC), thus avoiding its implementation in MGCC. The proposed approach is not only able to restore frequency and voltage of the MG but also ensures reactive power sharing. The distributed secondary control does not rely on a central control, so that the failure of a single unit will not produce the fail down of the whole system. Experimental results are presented to show the feasibility of the DSC. The time latency and data drop-out limits of the communication systems are studied as well.

792 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Droop control is the basic control method for load current sharing in dc microgrid applications. The conventional dc droop control method is realized by linearly reducing the dc output voltage as the output current increases. This method has two limitations. First, with the consideration of line resistance in a droop-controlled dc microgrid, since the output voltage of each converter cannot be exactly the same, the output current sharing accuracy is degraded. Second, the dc-bus voltage deviation increases with the load due to the droop action. In this paper, in order to improve the performance of the dc microgrid operation, a low-bandwidth communication (LBC)-based improved droop control method is proposed. In contrast with the conventional approach, the control system does not require a centralized secondary controller. Instead, it uses local controllers and the LBC network to exchange information between converter units. The droop controller is employed to achieve independent operation, and the average voltage and current controllers are used in each converter to simultaneously enhance the current sharing accuracy and restore the dc bus voltage. All of the controllers are realized locally, and the LBC system is only used for changing the values of the dc voltage and current. Hence, a decentralized control scheme is accomplished. The simulation test based on MATLAB/Simulink and the experimental validation based on a 2 × 2.2 kW prototype were implemented to demonstrate the proposed approach.

728 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A small-signal analysis is presented in order to analyze the system stability, which gives rules to design the main control parameters, and results are presented, showing the feasibility of the proposed controller.
Abstract: In this paper, the control strategy for a flexible microgrid is presented. The microgrid presented here consists of several line-interactive uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems connected in parallel. The control technique is based on the droop method to avoid critical communications among UPS units. Thus, a flexible microgrid is obtained to operate in either grid-connected or islanded mode. A small-signal analysis is presented in order to analyze the system stability, which gives rules to design the main control parameters. Simulation and experimental results are presented, showing the feasibility of the proposed controller.

695 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2009
TL;DR: The hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to MGs is presented and results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.
Abstract: DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to microgrids. The hierarchical control proposed consist of three levels: i) the primary control is based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) the secondary control allows restoring the deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchical-controlled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach.

3,466 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Peter Palensky1, Dietmar Dietrich2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: An overview and a taxonomy for DSM is given, the various types of DSM are analyzed, and an outlook on the latest demonstration projects in this domain is given.
Abstract: Energy management means to optimize one of the most complex and important technical creations that we know: the energy system. While there is plenty of experience in optimizing energy generation and distribution, it is the demand side that receives increasing attention by research and industry. Demand Side Management (DSM) is a portfolio of measures to improve the energy system at the side of consumption. It ranges from improving energy efficiency by using better materials, over smart energy tariffs with incentives for certain consumption patterns, up to sophisticated real-time control of distributed energy resources. This paper gives an overview and a taxonomy for DSM, analyzes the various types of DSM, and gives an outlook on the latest demonstration projects in this domain.

2,338 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability of the electrical system. The high penetration of distributed generators, linked to the grid through highly controllable power processors based on power electronics, together with the incorporation of electrical energy storage systems, communication technologies, and controllable loads, opens new horizons to the effective expansion of microgrid applications integrated into electrical power systems. This paper carries out an overview about microgrid structures and control techniques at different hierarchical levels. At the power converter level, a detailed analysis of the main operation modes and control structures for power converters belonging to microgrids is carried out, focusing mainly on grid-forming, grid-feeding, and grid-supporting configurations. This analysis is extended as well toward the hierarchical control scheme of microgrids, which, based on the primary, secondary, and tertiary control layer division, is devoted to minimize the operation cost, coordinating support services, meanwhile maximizing the reliability and the controllability of microgrids. Finally, the main grid services that microgrids can offer to the main network, as well as the future trends in the development of their operation and control for the next future, are presented and discussed.

1,923 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The major issues and challenges in microgrid control are discussed, and a review of state-of-the-art control strategies and trends is presented; a general overview of the main control principles (e.g., droop control, model predictive control, multi-agent systems).
Abstract: The increasing interest in integrating intermittent renewable energy sources into microgrids presents major challenges from the viewpoints of reliable operation and control. In this paper, the major issues and challenges in microgrid control are discussed, and a review of state-of-the-art control strategies and trends is presented; a general overview of the main control principles (e.g., droop control, model predictive control, multi-agent systems) is also included. The paper classifies microgrid control strategies into three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary, where primary and secondary levels are associated with the operation of the microgrid itself, and tertiary level pertains to the coordinated operation of the microgrid and the host grid. Each control level is discussed in detail in view of the relevant existing technical literature.

1,884 citations


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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 67

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20222
202140
202034
201941
201848
201753