Other affiliations: University of Natal
Bio: Jules-Raymond Tapamo is an academic researcher from University of KwaZulu-Natal. The author has contributed to research in topics: Feature extraction & Thresholding. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 99 publications receiving 779 citations. Previous affiliations of Jules-Raymond Tapamo include University of Natal.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A thorough analysis of recent research in aging and age estimation is presented; popular algorithms used in age estimation, existing models, and how they compare with each other are discussed; performance of various systems andHow they are evaluated are compared.
Abstract: Facial aging adversely impacts performance of face recognition and face verification and authentication using facial features. This stochastic personalized inevitable process poses dynamic theoretical and practical challenge to the computer vision and pattern recognition community. Age estimation is labeling a face image with exact real age or age group. How do humans recognize faces across ages? Do they learn the pattern or use age-invariant features? What are these age-invariant features that uniquely identify one across ages? These questions and others have attracted significant interest in the computer vision and pattern recognition research community. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of recent research in aging and age estimation. We discuss popular algorithms used in age estimation, existing models, and how they compare with each other; we compare performance of various systems and how they are evaluated, age estimation challenges, and insights for future research.
01 Nov 2017
TL;DR: This paper presents a literature review of driver drowsiness detection based on behavioral measures using machine learning techniques, which include support vector machines, convolutional neural networks and hidden Markov models in the context of drowsness detection.
Abstract: This paper presents a literature review of driver drowsiness detection based on behavioral measures using machine learning techniques. Faces contain information that can be used to interpret levels of drowsiness. There are many facial features that can be extracted from the face to infer the level of drowsiness. These include eye blinks, head movements and yawning. However, the development of a drowsiness detection system that yields reliable and accurate results is a challenging task as it requires accurate and robust algorithms. A wide range of techniques has been examined to detect driver drowsiness in the past. The recent rise of deep learning requires that these algorithms be revisited to evaluate their accuracy in detection of drowsiness. As a result, this paper reviews machine learning techniques which include support vector machines, convolutional neural networks and hidden Markov models in the context of drowsiness detection. Furthermore, a meta-analysis is conducted on 25 papers that use machine learning techniques for drowsiness detection. The analysis reveals that support vector machine technique is the most commonly used technique to detect drowsiness, but convolutional neural networks performed better than the other two techniques. Finally, this paper lists publicly available datasets that can be used as benchmarks for drowsiness detection.
TL;DR: A local adaptive thresholding technique based on gray level cooccurrence matrix- (GLCM-) energy information for retinal vessel segmentation is presented and is time efficient with a higher average sensitivity and average accuracy rates in the same range of very good specificity.
Abstract: Although retinal vessel segmentation has been extensively researched, a robust and time efficient segmentation method is highly needed. This paper presents a local adaptive thresholding technique based on gray level cooccurrence matrix- (GLCM-) energy information for retinal vessel segmentation. Different thresholds were computed using GLCM-energy information. An experimental evaluation on DRIVE database using the grayscale intensity and Green Channel of the retinal image demonstrates the high performance of the proposed local adaptive thresholding technique. The maximum average accuracy rates of 0.9511 and 0.9510 with maximum average sensitivity rates of 0.7650 and 0.7641 were achieved on DRIVE and STARE databases, respectively. When compared to the widely previously used techniques on the databases, the proposed adaptive thresholding technique is time efficient with a higher average sensitivity and average accuracy rates in the same range of very good specificity.
••15 Oct 2007
TL;DR: This paper presents a hybrid approach to segment and classify contents of document images, segmented into three types of regions: Graphics, Text and Space.
Abstract: In this paper we present a hybrid approach to segment and classify contents of document images. A Document Image is segmented into three types of regions: Graphics, Text and Space. The image of a document is subdivided into blocks and for each block five GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix) features are extracted. Based on these features, blocks are then clustered into three groups using K-Means algorithm; connected blocks that belong to the same group are merged. The classification of groups is done using pre-learned heuristic rules. Experiments were conducted on scanned newspapers and images from MediaTeam Document Database
TL;DR: The proposed method was extensively tested on the CK+ and JAFFE datasets using a support vector machine (SVM) and shown to further improve the accuracy and efficiency of GLTP compared to other common and state-of-the-art methods in literature.
Abstract: Automated human emotion detection is a topic of significant interest in the field of computer vision. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been on using facial expression recognition (FER) to extract emotion from facial expressions. Many popular appearance-based methods such as local binary pattern (LBP), local directional pattern (LDP) and local ternary pattern (LTP) have been proposed for this task and have been proven both accurate and efficient. In recent years, much work has been undertaken into improving these methods. The gradient local ternary pattern (GLTP) is one such method aimed at increasing robustness to varying illumination and random noise in the environment. In this paper, GLTP is investigated in more detail and further improvements such as the use of enhanced pre-processing, a more accurate Scharr gradient operator, dimensionality reduction via principal component analysis (PCA) and facial component extraction are proposed. The proposed method was extensively tested on the CK+ and JAFFE datasets using a support vector machine (SVM) and shown to further improve the accuracy and efficiency of GLTP compared to other common and state-of-the-art methods in literature.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book includes essential topics that either reflect practical significance or are of theoretical importance and describes numerous important application areas such as image based rendering and digital libraries.
Abstract: From the Publisher: The accessible presentation of this book gives both a general view of the entire computer vision enterprise and also offers sufficient detail to be able to build useful applications. Users learn techniques that have proven to be useful by first-hand experience and a wide range of mathematical methods. A CD-ROM with every copy of the text contains source code for programming practice, color images, and illustrative movies. Comprehensive and up-to-date, this book includes essential topics that either reflect practical significance or are of theoretical importance. Topics are discussed in substantial and increasing depth. Application surveys describe numerous important application areas such as image based rendering and digital libraries. Many important algorithms broken down and illustrated in pseudo code. Appropriate for use by engineers as a comprehensive reference to the computer vision enterprise.
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: This survey covers the historical development and current state of the art in image understanding for iris biometrics and suggests a short list of recommended readings for someone new to the field to quickly grasp the big picture of irisBiometrics.
Abstract: This survey covers the historical development and current state of the art in image understanding for iris biometrics. Most research publications can be categorized as making their primary contribution to one of the four major modules in iris biometrics: image acquisition, iris segmentation, texture analysis and matching of texture representations. Other important research includes experimental evaluations, image databases, applications and systems, and medical conditions that may affect the iris. We also suggest a short list of recommended readings for someone new to the field to quickly grasp the big picture of iris biometrics.