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Julie Bauer Morrison

Bio: Julie Bauer Morrison is an academic researcher from Stanford University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Animation & Graphics. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 10 publications receiving 1941 citations. Previous affiliations of Julie Bauer Morrison include Community College of Philadelphia & Bryant University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals lack of equivalence between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more information or involve interactivity.
Abstract: Graphics have been used since ancient times to portray things that are inherently spatiovisual, like maps and building plans. More recently, graphics have been used to portray things that are metaphorically spatiovisual, like graphs and organizational charts. The assumption is that graphics can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, communication and inference. Assumptions aside, research on static graphics has shown that only carefully designed and appropriate graphics prove to be beneficial for conveying complex systems. Effective graphics conform to the Congruence Principle according to which the content and format of the graphic should correspond to the content and format of the concepts to be conveyed. From this, it follows that animated graphics should be effective in portraying change over time. Yet the research on the efficacy of animated over static graphics is not encouraging. In cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals lack of equivalence between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more information or involve interactivity. Animations of events may be ineffective because animations violate the second principle of good graphics, the Apprehension Principle, according to which graphics should be accurately perceived and appropriately conceived. Animations are often too complex or too fast to be accurately perceived. Moreover, many continuous events are conceived of as sequences of discrete steps. Judicious use of interactivity may overcome both these disadvantages. Animations may be more effective than comparable static graphics in situations other than conveying complex systems, for example, for real time reorientations in time and space.

1,647 citations

01 Jan 2000
TL;DR: Overall, this analysis suggests two principles, Apprehension and Expression, for successful animated graphics, though these principles do not guarantee that animated graphics will be superior to equivalent static ones.
Abstract: Graphics, such as maps, have been used since ancient times to portray things that are inherently visual. More recently, graphics such as diagrams and graphs, have been used to portray things that are metaphorically spatio-visual. The assumption is that graphics facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, and inference. Assumptions aside, research on static graphics has shown that only carefully designed and appropriate graphics prove to be beneficial. Despite enthusiasm for animated graphics, the research reviewed here on their efficacy is not encouraging. In cases where animated graphics seemed superior to static ones, scrutiny of the actual stimuli revealed that the animated graphics conveyed more information, especially about the microsteps between larger steps. Lack of benefit from animations of events may be because animations are difficult to perceive and because events are often conceived of as sequences of discrete steps. Overall, this analysis suggests two principles, Apprehension and Expression, for successful animated graphics, though these principles do not guarantee that animated graphics will be superior to equivalent static ones.

102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Fourth and sixth grade students learned the operation of a bicycle pump from graphics that were: (i) presented simultaneously; (ii) presented successively; (iii) self-paced, or (iv) animated.
Abstract: Although animations are believed to be effective in learning and teaching, several studies have failed to confirm this. Nevertheless, animations might be more attractive and motivating. Fourth and sixth grade students learned the operation of a bicycle pump from graphics that were: (i) presented simultaneously; (ii) presented successively; (iii) self-paced, or (iv) animated. The presentation mode affected evaluation of perceived comprehensibility, interestingness,enjoymentandmotivation,butnotcomprehensiontestscore.Fourthgraderswhowere lowinneedforcognitionratedtheanimationsasmoreenjoyableandmotivating,whereassixth graders rated self-paced graphics as more interesting and motivating. The evaluations of sixth graders correspond to results of many studies on learning. Animations are not more effective than equivalent static graphics in learning, and they are not seen as more motivating by sixth graders.

91 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the space around the body is organized into a mental framework consisting of extensions of the major axes of the body, and the relative accessibility of the axes depends on their perceptual and functional properties.
Abstract: As we move about and interact in the world, we keep track of different spaces, among them the space of navigation, the space immediately around the body, and the space of the body We review research showing that these spaces are conceptualized differently Knowledge of the space of navigation is systematically distorted For example, people mentally rotate roads and land masses to greater correspondence with global reference frames, they mentally align roads and land masses, they overestimate distances near the viewpoint relative to those far from it These and other distortions indicate that the space of navigation is schematized to elements and spatial relations relative to reference frames and perspective The space around the body is organized into a mental framework consisting of extensions of the major axes of the body Times to report objects around the body suggest that the relative accessibility of the axes depends on their perceptual and functional properties and the relation of the body to the

66 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
31 Mar 2001
TL;DR: Investigation of the Conceptual Congruence Hypothesis found that animated graphics were more effective than text in some cases, especially for participants with low spatial ability, but animation did not further increase effectiveness.
Abstract: Animated graphics have been increasingly adopted to teach complex systems, encouraged by the preconception that realism is effective. Nevertheless, the evidence has been discouraging as to their effectiveness. By the Conceptual Congruence Hypothesis, graphics should be effective in conveying concepts that are literally or metaphorically spatial. By extension, animated graphics should be effective in conveying change in time. This hypothesis was investigated by comparing three interfaces that presented text, text plus static graphics, or text plus animated graphics. Evidence was obtained for the static version of the Conceptual Congruence Hypothesis. Graphics were more effective than text in some cases, especially for participants with low spatial ability, but animation did not further increase effectiveness.

55 citations


Cited by
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: A wide variety of media can be used in learning, including distance learning, such as print, lectures, conference sections, tutors, pictures, video, sound, and computers.
Abstract: A wide variety of media can be used in learning, including distance learning, such as print, lectures, conference sections, tutors, pictures, video, sound, and computers. Any one instance of distance learning will make choices among these media, perhaps using several.

2,940 citations

Book
30 Mar 2011
TL;DR: Cognitive load theory uses evolutionary theory to consider human cognitive architecture and uses that architecture to devise novel, instructional procedures to generate instructional procedures, summarized in this chapter.
Abstract: Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

1,878 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals lack of equivalence between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more information or involve interactivity.
Abstract: Graphics have been used since ancient times to portray things that are inherently spatiovisual, like maps and building plans. More recently, graphics have been used to portray things that are metaphorically spatiovisual, like graphs and organizational charts. The assumption is that graphics can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory, communication and inference. Assumptions aside, research on static graphics has shown that only carefully designed and appropriate graphics prove to be beneficial for conveying complex systems. Effective graphics conform to the Congruence Principle according to which the content and format of the graphic should correspond to the content and format of the concepts to be conveyed. From this, it follows that animated graphics should be effective in portraying change over time. Yet the research on the efficacy of animated over static graphics is not encouraging. In cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals lack of equivalence between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more information or involve interactivity. Animations of events may be ineffective because animations violate the second principle of good graphics, the Apprehension Principle, according to which graphics should be accurately perceived and appropriately conceived. Animations are often too complex or too fast to be accurately perceived. Moreover, many continuous events are conceived of as sequences of discrete steps. Judicious use of interactivity may overcome both these disadvantages. Animations may be more effective than comparable static graphics in situations other than conveying complex systems, for example, for real time reorientations in time and space.

1,647 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Long-Term Temporal Convolutional Neural Networks (LTCNNs) were used to learn action representations with high-quality optical flow vector fields and achieved state-of-the-art results on two challenging benchmarks for action recognition.
Abstract: Typical human actions last several seconds and exhibit characteristic spatio-temporal structure. Recent methods attempt to capture this structure and learn action representations with convolutional neural networks. Such representations, however, are typically learned at the level of a few video frames failing to model actions at their full temporal extent. In this work we learn video representations using neural networks with long-term temporal convolutions (LTC). We demonstrate that LTC-CNN models with increased temporal extents improve the accuracy of action recognition. We also study the impact of different low-level representations, such as raw values of video pixels and optical flow vector fields and demonstrate the importance of high-quality optical flow estimation for learning accurate action models. We report state-of-the-art results on two challenging benchmarks for human action recognition UCF101 (92.7%) and HMDB51 (67.2%).

853 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A meta-analysis of 26 primary studies, yielding 76 pair-wise comparisons of dynamic and static visualizations, reveals a medium-sized overall advantage of instructional animations over static pictures as discussed by the authors.

820 citations