Other affiliations: Drexel University, Argonne National Laboratory, Tsinghua University ...read more
Bio: Jun Lu is an academic researcher from Chinese Academy of Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Thin film & Lithium. The author has an hindex of 135, co-authored 1526 publication(s) receiving 99767 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Jun Lu include Drexel University & Argonne National Laboratory.
Topics: Thin film, Lithium, Battery (electricity), Sputter deposition, Cathode
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A new, bead-based flow cytometric miRNA expression profiling method is used to present a systematic expression analysis of 217 mammalian miRNAs from 334 samples, including multiple human cancers, and finds the miRNA profiles are surprisingly informative, reflecting the developmental lineage and differentiation state of the tumours.
Abstract: Recent work has revealed the existence of a class of small non-coding RNA species, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), which have critical functions across various biological processes. Here we use a new, bead-based flow cytometric miRNA expression profiling method to present a systematic expression analysis of 217 mammalian miRNAs from 334 samples, including multiple human cancers. The miRNA profiles are surprisingly informative, reflecting the developmental lineage and differentiation state of the tumours. We observe a general downregulation of miRNAs in tumours compared with normal tissues. Furthermore, we were able to successfully classify poorly differentiated tumours using miRNA expression profiles, whereas messenger RNA profiles were highly inaccurate when applied to the same samples. These findings highlight the potential of miRNA profiling in cancer diagnosis.
04 Oct 2011-Advanced Materials
TL;DR: 2D nanosheets, composed of a few Ti 3 C 2 layers and conical scrolls, produced by the room temperature exfoliation of Ti 3 AlC 2 in hydrofl uoric acid are reported, which opens a door to the synthesis of a large number of other 2D crystals.
Abstract: Currently, however, there are relatively few such atomically layered solids. [ 2–5 ] Here, we report on 2D nanosheets, composed of a few Ti 3 C 2 layers and conical scrolls, produced by the room temperature exfoliation of Ti 3 AlC 2 in hydrofl uoric acid. The large elastic moduli predicted by ab initio simulation, and the possibility of varying their surface chemistries (herein they are terminated by hydroxyl and/or fl uorine groups) render these nanosheets attractive as polymer composite fi llers. Theory also predicts that their bandgap can be tuned by varying their surface terminations. The good conductivity and ductility of the treated powders suggest uses in Li-ion batteries, pseudocapacitors, and other electronic applications. Since Ti 3 AlC 2 is a member of a 60 + group of layered ternary carbides and nitrides known as the MAX phases, this discovery opens a door to the synthesis of a large number of other 2D crystals. Arguably the most studied freestanding 2D material is graphene, which was produced by mechanical exfoliation into single-layers in 2004. [ 1 ] Some other layered materials, such as hexagonal BN, [ 2 ] transition metal oxides, and hydroxides, [ 4 ] as well as clays, [ 3 ] have also been exfoliated into 2D sheets. Interestingly, exfoliated MoS 2 single layers were reported as early as in 1986. [ 5 ] Graphene is fi nding its way to applications ranging from supercapacitor electrodes [ 6 ] to reinforcement in composites. [ 7 ] Although graphene has attracted more attention than all other 2D materials combined, its simple chemistry and the weak van der Waals bonding between layers in multilayer structures limit its use. Complex, layered structures that contain more than one element may offer new properties because they
24 Jun 2002-Nature Medicine
TL;DR: It is reported here that, except for cells of the macrophage lineage, normal human tissues do not express B7-H1 and the findings have implications for the design of T cell–based cancer immunotherapy.
Abstract: B7-H1, a recently described member of the B7 family of costimulatory molecules, is thought to be involved in the regulation of cellular and humoral immune responses through the PD-1 receptor on activated T and B cells. We report here that, except for cells of the macrophage lineage, normal human tissues do not express B7-H1. In contrast, B7-H1 is abundant in human carcinomas of lung, ovary and colon and in melanomas. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma upregulates B7-H1 on the surface of tumor cell lines. Cancer cell-associated B7-H1 increases apoptosis of antigen-specific human T-cell clones in vitro, and the apoptotic effect of B7-H1 is mediated largely by one or more receptors other than PD-1. In addition, expression of B7-H1 on mouse P815 tumor increases apoptosis of activated tumor-reactive T cells and promotes the growth of highly immunogenic B7-1(+) tumors in vivo. These findings have implications for the design of T cell-based cancer immunotherapy.
TL;DR: These findings explain how various drugs affect sleep and wakefulness, and provide the basis for a wide range of environmental influences to shape wake–sleep cycles into the optimal pattern for survival.
Abstract: A series of findings over the past decade has begun to identify the brain circuitry and neurotransmitters that regulate our daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness. The latter depends on a network of cell groups that activate the thalamus and the cerebral cortex. A key switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep. Other hypothalamic neurons stabilize the switch, and their absence results in inappropriate switching of behavioural states, such as occurs in narcolepsy. These findings explain how various drugs affect sleep and wakefulness, and provide the basis for a wide range of environmental influences to shape wake-sleep cycles into the optimal pattern for survival.
TL;DR: Evidence is presented for the exfoliation of the following MAX phases by the simple immersion of their powders, at room temperature, in HF of varying concentrations for times varying between 10 and 72 h followed by sonication.
Abstract: Herein we report on the synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal carbides and carbonitrides by immersing select MAX phase powders in hydrofluoric acid, HF. The MAX phases represent a large (>60 members) family of ternary, layered, machinable transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. Herein we present evidence for the exfoliation of the following MAX phases: Ti2AlC, Ta4AlC3, (Ti0.5,Nb0.5)2AlC, (V0.5,Cr0.5)3AlC2, and Ti3AlCN by the simple immersion of their powders, at room temperature, in HF of varying concentrations for times varying between 10 and 72 h followed by sonication. The removal of the “A” group layer from the MAX phases results in 2-D layers that we are labeling MXenes to denote the loss of the A element and emphasize their structural similarities with graphene. The sheet resistances of the MXenes were found to be comparable to multilayer graphene. Contact angle measurements with water on pressed MXene surfaces showed hydrophilic behavior.
TL;DR: Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.
Abstract: The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) method as discussed by the authors focuses on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation.
Abstract: Although genomewide RNA expression analysis has become a routine tool in biomedical research, extracting biological insight from such information remains a major challenge. Here, we describe a powerful analytical method called Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for interpreting gene expression data. The method derives its power by focusing on gene sets, that is, groups of genes that share common biological function, chromosomal location, or regulation. We demonstrate how GSEA yields insights into several cancer-related data sets, including leukemia and lung cancer. Notably, where single-gene analysis finds little similarity between two independent studies of patient survival in lung cancer, GSEA reveals many biological pathways in common. The GSEA method is embodied in a freely available software package, together with an initial database of 1,325 biologically defined gene sets.
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.