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Jürgen Brem

Bio: Jürgen Brem is an academic researcher from University of Oxford. The author has contributed to research in topics: Lipase & Kinetic resolution. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 83 publications receiving 2098 citations. Previous affiliations of Jürgen Brem include Babeș-Bolyai University & University of Turku.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article showed that cyclic boronates potently inhibit both nucleophilic serine and zinc-dependent β-lactamases by a mechanism involving mimicking of the common tetrahedral intermediate.
Abstract: β-Lactamases enable resistance to almost all β-lactam antibiotics. Pioneering work revealed that acyclic boronic acids can act as 'transition state analogue' inhibitors of nucleophilic serine enzymes, including serine-β-lactamases. Here we report biochemical and biophysical analyses revealing that cyclic boronates potently inhibit both nucleophilic serine and zinc-dependent β-lactamases by a mechanism involving mimicking of the common tetrahedral intermediate. Cyclic boronates also potently inhibit the non-essential penicillin-binding protein PBP 5 by the same mechanism of action. The results open the way for development of dual action inhibitors effective against both serine- and metallo-β-lactamases, and which could also have antimicrobial activity through inhibition of PBPs.

196 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results further support the “high-energy-intermediate” analogue approach for broad-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor development and highlight the ability of boron inhibitors to interchange between different hybridization states/binding modes.
Abstract: The bicyclic boronate VNRX-5133 (taniborbactam) is a new type of β-lactamase inhibitor in clinical development. We report that VNRX-5133 inhibits serine-β-lactamases (SBLs) and some clinically important metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), including NDM-1 and VIM-1/2. VNRX-5133 activity against IMP-1 and tested B2/B3 MBLs was lower/not observed. Crystallography reveals how VNRX-5133 binds to the class D SBL OXA-10 and MBL NDM-1. The crystallographic results highlight the ability of bicyclic boronates to inhibit SBLs and MBLs via binding of a tetrahedral (sp3) boron species. The structures imply conserved binding of the bicyclic core with SBLs/MBLs. With NDM-1, by crystallography, we observed an unanticipated VNRX-5133 binding mode involving cyclization of its acylamino oxygen onto the boron of the bicyclic core. Different side-chain binding modes for bicyclic boronates for SBLs and MBLs imply scope for side-chain optimization. The results further support the "high-energy-intermediate" analogue approach for broad-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor development and highlight the ability of boron inhibitors to interchange between different hybridization states/binding modes.

121 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-resolution crystal structures of three MBLs in complex with either the l- or d-captopril stereoisomer reveal correlations between the binding mode and inhibition potency, useful in the design of MBL inhibitors with the breadth of selectivity required for clinical application against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms causing MBL-mediated resistant infections.
Abstract: β-Lactams are the most successful antibacterials, but their effectiveness is threatened by resistance, most importantly by production of serine- and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). MBLs are of increasing concern because they catalyze the hydrolysis of almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including recent-generation carbapenems. Clinically useful serine-β-lactamase inhibitors have been developed, but such inhibitors are not available for MBLs. l-Captopril, which is used to treat hypertension via angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, has been reported to inhibit MBLs by chelating the active site zinc ions via its thiol(ate). We report systematic studies on B1 MBL inhibition by all four captopril stereoisomers. High-resolution crystal structures of three MBLs (IMP-1, BcII, and VIM-2) in complex with either the l- or d-captopril stereoisomer reveal correlations between the binding mode and inhibition potency. The results will be useful in the design of MBL inhibitors with the breadth of selectivity required for clinical application against carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms causing MBL-mediated resistant infections.

120 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Crystallographic analyses of the mechanism of inhibition of the clinically relevant VIM-2 MBL by a rhodanine reveal that the r Rhodanine ring undergoes hydrolysis to give a thioenolate, a potent broad-spectrum MBL inhibitor and a lead structure for the development of new types of clinically useful MBL inhibitors.
Abstract: The use of β-lactam antibiotics is compromised by resistance, which is provided by β-lactamases belonging to both metallo (MBL)- and serine (SBL)-β-lactamase subfamilies. The rhodanines are one of very few compound classes that inhibit penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), SBLs and, as recently reported, MBLs. Here, we describe crystallographic analyses of the mechanism of inhibition of the clinically relevant VIM-2 MBL by a rhodanine, which reveal that the rhodanine ring undergoes hydrolysis to give a thioenolate. The thioenolate is found to bind via di-zinc chelation, mimicking the binding of intermediates in β-lactam hydrolysis. Crystallization of VIM-2 in the presence of the intact rhodanine led to observation of a ternary complex of MBL, a thioenolate fragment and rhodanine. The crystallographic observations are supported by kinetic and biophysical studies, including (19)F NMR analyses, which reveal the rhodanine-derived thioenolate to be a potent broad-spectrum MBL inhibitor and a lead structure for the development of new types of clinically useful MBL inhibitors.

102 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, crystal structures reveal the MCR-1 periplasmic, catalytic domain to be a zinc metalloprotein with an alkaline phosphatase/sulphatase fold containing three disulphide bonds.
Abstract: The polymixin colistin is a “last line” antibiotic against extensively-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, the mcr-1 gene was identified as a plasmid-mediated resistance mechanism in human and animal Enterobacteriaceae, with a wide geographical distribution and many producer strains resistant to multiple other antibiotics. mcr-1 encodes a membrane-bound enzyme catalysing phosphoethanolamine transfer onto bacterial lipid A. Here we present crystal structures revealing the MCR-1 periplasmic, catalytic domain to be a zinc metalloprotein with an alkaline phosphatase/sulphatase fold containing three disulphide bonds. One structure captures a phosphorylated form representing the first intermediate in the transfer reaction. Mutation of residues implicated in zinc or phosphoethanolamine binding, or catalytic activity, restores colistin susceptibility of recombinant E. coli. Zinc deprivation reduces colistin MICs in MCR-1-producing laboratory, environmental, animal and human E. coli. Conversely, over-expression of the disulphide isomerase DsbA increases the colistin MIC of laboratory E. coli. Preliminary density functional theory calculations on cluster models suggest a single zinc ion may be sufficient to support phosphoethanolamine transfer. These data demonstrate the importance of zinc and disulphide bonds to MCR-1 activity, suggest that assays under zinc-limiting conditions represent a route to phenotypic identification of MCR-1 producing E. coli, and identify key features of the likely catalytic mechanism.

99 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The highly automated PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is described, which can be applied equally well to phases derived from isomorphous/anomalous and molecular-replacement methods.
Abstract: Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard Thomas C. Terwilliger a* , Ralf W. Grosse-Kunstleve b , Pavel V. Afonine b , Nigel W. Moriarty b , Peter Zwart b , Li-Wei Hung a , Randy J. Read c , Paul D. Adams b* a b Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Bldg 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. c Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. * Email: terwill@lanl.gov or PDAdams@lbl.gov Running title: The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard Abstract The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model- building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model- building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 A to 3.2 A, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution. Keywords: Model building; model completion; macromolecular models; Protein Data Bank; structure refinement; PHENIX Introduction Iterative model-building and refinement is a powerful approach to obtaining a complete and accurate macromolecular model. The approach consists of cycles of building an atomic model based on an electron density map for a macromolecular structure, refining the structure, using the refined structure as a basis for improving the map, and building a new model. This type of approach has been carried out in a semi-automated fashion for many years, with manual model-building iterating with automated refinement (Jensen, 1997). More recently, with the development first of ARP/wARP (Perrakis et al., 1999), and later other procedures including RESOLVE iterative model-building and refinement (Terwilliger,

1,161 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a Bayesian approach to estimating map quality is developed and used in the PHENIX AutoSol wizard to make decisions during automated structure solution, and the skewness of electron density is found to be the best indicator of actual map quality.
Abstract: Ten measures of experimental electron-density-map quality are examined and the skewness of electron density is found to be the best indicator of actual map quality. A Bayesian approach to estimating map quality is developed and used in the PHENIX AutoSol wizard to make decisions during automated structure solution.

691 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative analysis of the literature reports on the recent trends in the enzyme immobilization by adsorption is presented, where both carriers, carrier modifiers and procedures developed for effective adaption of the enzymes are discussed.
Abstract: Endowed with unparalleled high catalytic activity and selectivity, enzymes offer enormous potential as catalysts in practical applications. These applications, however, are seriously hampered by enzymes’ low thermal and chemical stabilities. One way to improve these stabilities is the enzyme immobilization. Among various tested methods of this process that make use of different enzyme-carrier interactions, immobilization by adsorption on solid carriers has appeared most common. According to these findings, in this review we present a comparative analysis of the literature reports on the recent trends in the immobilization of the enzymes by adsorption. This thorough study was prepared in order to provide a deeper understanding of the process. Both carriers, carrier modifiers and procedures developed for effective adsorption of the enzymes are discussed. The review may thus be helpful in choosing the right adsorption scheme for a given enzyme to achieve the improvement of its stability and activity for a specific application.

633 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The biologically relevant chemistry of H2S and the enzymatic routes for its production and oxidation are discussed and the roles ascribed to protein persulfidation in cell signaling pathways are discussed.
Abstract: Signaling by H2S is proposed to occur via persulfidation, a posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (RSH) to persulfides (RSSH). Persulfidation provides a framework for understanding the physiological and pharmacological effects of H2S. Due to the inherent instability of persulfides, their chemistry is understudied. In this review, we discuss the biologically relevant chemistry of H2S and the enzymatic routes for its production and oxidation. We cover the chemical biology of persulfides and the chemical probes for detecting them. We conclude by discussing the roles ascribed to protein persulfidation in cell signaling pathways.

590 citations