Justin L. P. Benesch
Other affiliations: University of Cambridge, Mansfield University of Pennsylvania, Jules Stein Eye Institute
Bio: Justin L. P. Benesch is an academic researcher from University of Oxford. The author has contributed to research in topics: Mass spectrometry & Chaperone (protein). The author has an hindex of 50, co-authored 131 publications receiving 8433 citations. Previous affiliations of Justin L. P. Benesch include University of Cambridge & Mansfield University of Pennsylvania.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Within this protocol, general approaches to data interpretation, methods of predicting whether specific model structures for a given protein assembly can be separated by ion mobility, and generalized strategies for data normalization and modeling are covered.
Abstract: Here we describe a detailed protocol for both data collection and interpretation with respect to ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis of large protein assemblies. Ion mobility is a technique that can separate gaseous ions based on their size and shape. Specifically, within this protocol, we cover general approaches to data interpretation, methods of predicting whether specific model structures for a given protein assembly can be separated by ion mobility, and generalized strategies for data normalization and modeling. The protocol also covers basic instrument settings and best practices for both observation and detection of large noncovalent protein complexes by ion mobility-mass spectrometry.
TL;DR: UniDec (Universal Deconvolution), software that provides a rapid, robust, and flexible deconvolution of mass spectra and ion mobility-mass spectra with minimal user intervention is developed, using systems of increasing complexity.
Abstract: Interpretation of mass spectra is challenging because they report a ratio of two physical quantities, mass and charge, which may each have multiple components that overlap in m/z. Previous approaches to disentangling the two have focused on peak assignment or fitting. However, the former struggle with complex spectra, and the latter are generally computationally intensive and may require substantial manual intervention. We propose a new data analysis approach that employs a Bayesian framework to separate the mass and charge dimensions. On the basis of this approach, we developed UniDec (Universal Deconvolution), software that provides a rapid, robust, and flexible deconvolution of mass spectra and ion mobility-mass spectra with minimal user intervention. Incorporation of the charge-state distribution in the Bayesian prior probabilities provides separation of the m/z spectrum into its physical mass and charge components. We have evaluated our approach using systems of increasing complexity, enabling us to ...
TL;DR: Interferometric scattering mass spectrometry allows spatiotemporally resolved measurement of a broad range of biomolecular interactions, one molecule at a time, to characterize the molecular dynamics of processes as diverse as glycoprotein cross-linking, amyloidogenic protein aggregation, and actin polymerization.
Abstract: The cellular processes underpinning life are orchestrated by proteins and their interactions. The associated structural and dynamic heterogeneity, despite being key to function, poses a fundamental challenge to existing analytical and structural methodologies. We used interferometric scattering microscopy to quantify the mass of single biomolecules in solution with 2% sequence mass accuracy, up to 19-kilodalton resolution, and 1-kilodalton precision. We resolved oligomeric distributions at high dynamic range, detected small-molecule binding, and mass-imaged proteins with associated lipids and sugars. These capabilities enabled us to characterize the molecular dynamics of processes as diverse as glycoprotein cross-linking, amyloidogenic protein aggregation, and actin polymerization. Interferometric scattering mass spectrometry allows spatiotemporally resolved measurement of a broad range of biomolecular interactions, one molecule at a time.
TL;DR: This review aims to establish MS of intact complexes as part of future structural genomic and proteomic investigations by describing the processes of generating, transmitting, and analyzing ions formed by protein complexes.
Abstract: A review on the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the upper levels of protein organization is presented A description on the processes of generating, transmitting, and analyzing ions formed by protein complexes is presented as well as the experimental conditions theory that are the standards for the investigations In addition, some other approaches are included that can be used in conjunction with MS of intact complexes This review aims to establish MS of intact complexes as part of future structural genomic and proteomic investigations Several other topics discussed include the generation of ions of protein complexes, the transmission and analysis of ions o protein complexes, the activation and dissociation of protein complexes, and lastly, the companion technologies for MS of protein complexes
University of Bordeaux1, Wichita State University2, University of Manchester3, Mansfield University of Pennsylvania4, Florida State University5, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory6, University of Washington7, Amgen8, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna9, Washington State University10, Loughborough University11, University of Liège12, Florida International University13, Agilent Technologies14, Waters Corporation15, University of Bern16, University of Minnesota17, Vanderbilt University18, French Institute of Health and Medical Research19, Birkbeck, University of London20, West Virginia University21
TL;DR: A guide to ion mobility mass spectrometry experiments, which covers both linear and nonlinear methods: what is measured, how the measurements are done, and how to report the results, including the uncertainties of mobility and collision cross section values.
Abstract: Here we present a guide to ion mobility mass spectrometry experiments, which covers both linear and nonlinear methods: what is measured, how the measurements are done, and how to report the results, including the uncertainties of mobility and collision cross section values. The guide aims to clarify some possibly confusing concepts, and the reporting recommendations should help researchers, authors and reviewers to contribute comprehensive reports, so that the ion mobility data can be reused more confidently. Starting from the concept of the definition of the measurand, we emphasize that (i) mobility values (K0) depend intrinsically on ion structure, the nature of the bath gas, temperature, and E/N; (ii) ion mobility does not measure molecular surfaces directly, but collision cross section (CCS) values are derived from mobility values using a physical model; (iii) methods relying on calibration are empirical (and thus may provide method‐dependent results) only if the gas nature, temperature or E/N cannot match those of the primary method. Our analysis highlights the urgency of a community effort toward establishing primary standards and reference materials for ion mobility, and provides recommendations to do so.
TL;DR: This volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of the instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented.
Abstract: I read this book the same weekend that the Packers took on the Rams, and the experience of the latter event, obviously, colored my judgment. Although I abhor anything that smacks of being a handbook (like, \"How to Earn a Merit Badge in Neurosurgery\") because too many volumes in biomedical science already evince a boyscout-like approach, I must confess that parts of this volume are fast, scholarly, and significant, with certain reservations. I like parts of this well-illustrated book because Dr. Sj6strand, without so stating, develops certain subjects on technique in relation to the acquisition of judgment and sophistication. And this is important! So, given that the author (like all of us) is somewhat deficient in some areas, and biased in others, the book is still valuable if the uninitiated reader swallows it in a general fashion, realizing full well that what will be required from the reader is a modulation to fit his vision, propreception, adaptation and response, and the kind of problem he is undertaking. A major deficiency of this book is revealed by comparison of its use of physics and of chemistry to provide understanding and background for the application of high resolution electron microscopy to problems in biology. Since the volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of The instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented. The potential use of chemical or cytochemical information as it relates to biological fine structure , however, is quite deficient. I wonder when even sophisticated morphol-ogists will consider fixation a reaction and not a technique; only then will the fundamentals become self-evident and predictable and this sine qua flon will become less mystical. Staining reactions (the most inadequate chapter) ought to be something more than a technique to selectively enhance contrast of morphological elements; it ought to give the structural addresses of some of the chemical residents of cell components. Is it pertinent that auto-radiography gets singled out for more complete coverage than other significant aspects of cytochemistry by a high resolution microscopist, when it has a built-in minimal error of 1,000 A in standard practice? I don't mean to blind-side (in strict football terminology) Dr. Sj6strand's efforts for what is \"routinely used in our laboratory\"; what is done is usually well done. It's just that …
TL;DR: In the early 1960s, the discovery of crown ethers and spherands by Pedersen, Lehn, and Cram3 led to the realization that small, complementary molecules can be made to recognize each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, charge-charge, donor-acceptor, π-π, van der Waals, hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions to achieve these highly complex and often symmetrical architectures as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Fascination with supramolecular chemistry over the last few decades has led to the synthesis of an ever-increasing number of elegant and intricate functional structures with sizes that approach nanoscopic dimensions Today, it has grown into a mature field of modern science whose interfaces with many disciplines have provided invaluable opportunities for crossing boundaries both inside and between the fields of chemistry, physics, and biology This chemistry is of continuing interest for synthetic chemists; partly because of the fascinating physical and chemical properties and the complex and varied aesthetically pleasing structures that supramolecules possess For scientists seeking to design novel molecular materials exhibiting unusual sensing, magnetic, optical, and catalytic properties, and for researchers investigating the structure and function of biomolecules, supramolecular chemistry provides limitless possibilities Thus, it transcends the traditional divisional boundaries of science and represents a highly interdisciplinary field In the early 1960s, the discovery of ‘crown ethers’, ‘cryptands’ and ‘spherands’ by Pedersen,1 Lehn,2 and Cram3 respectively, led to the realization that small, complementary molecules can be made to recognize each other through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen-bonding, charge-charge, donor-acceptor, π-π, van der Waals, etc Such ‘programmed’ molecules can thus be self-assembled by utilizing these interactions in a definite algorithm to form large supramolecules that have different physicochemical properties than those of the precursor building blocks Typical systems are designed such that the self-assembly process is kinetically reversible; the individual building blocks gradually funnel towards an ensemble that represents the thermodynamic minimum of the system via numerous association and dissociation steps By tuning various reaction parameters, the reaction equilibrium can be shifted towards the desired product As such, self-assembly has a distinct advantage over traditional, stepwise synthetic approaches when accessing large molecules It is well known that nature has the ability to assemble relatively simple molecular precursors into extremely complex biomolecules, which are vital for life processes Nature’s building blocks possess specific functionalities in configurations that allow them to interact with one another in a deliberate manner Protein folding, nucleic acid assembly and tertiary structure, phospholipid membranes, ribosomes, microtubules, etc are but a selective, representative example of self-assembly in nature that is of critical importance for living organisms Nature makes use of a variety of weak, non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen–bonding, charge–charge, donor–acceptor, π-π, van der Waals, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, etc interactions to achieve these highly complex and often symmetrical architectures In fact, the existence of life is heavily dependent on these phenomena The aforementioned structures provide inspiration for chemists seeking to exploit the ‘weak interactions’ described above to make scaffolds rivaling the complexity of natural systems The breadth of supramolecular chemistry has progressively increased with the synthesis of numerous unique supramolecules each year Based on the interactions used in the assembly process, supramolecular chemistry can be broadly classified in to three main branches: i) those that utilize H-bonding motifs in the supramolecular architectures, ii) processes that primarily use other non-covalent interactions such as ion-ion, ion-dipole, π–π stacking, cation-π, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions, and iii) those that employ strong and directional metal-ligand bonds for the assembly process However, as the scale and degree of complexity of desired molecules increases, the assembly of small molecular units into large, discrete supramolecules becomes an increasingly daunting task This has been due in large part to the inability to completely control the directionality of the weak forces employed in the first two classifications above Coordination-driven self-assembly, which defines the third approach, affords a greater control over the rational design of 2D and 3D architectures by capitalizing on the predictable nature of the metal-ligand coordination sphere and ligand lability to encode directionality Thus, this third strategy represents an alternative route to better execute the “bottom-up” synthetic strategy for designing molecules of desired dimensions, ranging from a few cubic angstroms to over a cubic nanometer For instance, a wide array of 2D systems: rhomboids, squares, rectangles, triangles, etc, and 3D systems: trigonal pyramids, trigonal prisms, cubes, cuboctahedra, double squares, adamantanoids, dodecahedra and a variety of other cages have been reported As in nature, inherent preferences for particular geometries and binding motifs are ‘encoded’ in certain molecules depending on the metals and functional groups present; these moieties help to control the way in which the building blocks assemble into well-defined, discrete supramolecules4 Since the early pioneering work by Lehn5 and Sauvage6 on the feasibility and usefulness of coordination-driven self-assembly in the formation of infinite helicates, grids, ladders, racks, knots, rings, catenanes, rotaxanes and related species,7 several groups - Stang,8 Raymond,9 Fujita,10 Mirkin,11 Cotton12 and others13,14 have independently developed and exploited novel coordination-based paradigms for the self-assembly of discrete metallacycles and metallacages with well-defined shapes and sizes In the last decade, the concepts and perspectives of coordination-driven self-assembly have been delineated and summarized in several insightful reviews covering various aspects of coordinationdriven self-assembly15 In the last decade, the use of this synthetic strategy has led to metallacages dubbed as “molecular flasks” by Fujita,16 and Raymond and Bergman,17 which due to their ability to encapsulate guest molecules, allowed for the observation of unique chemical phenomena and unusual reactions which cannot be achieved in the conventional gas, liquid or solid phases Furthermore, these assemblies found applications in supramolecular catalysis18,19 and as nanomaterials as developed by Hupp20 and others21,22 This review focuses on the journey of early coordination-driven self-assembly paradigms to more complex and discrete 2D and 3D supramolecular ensembles over the last decade We begin with a discussion of various approaches that have been developed by different groups to assemble finite supramolecular architectures The subsequent sections contain detailed discussions on the synthesis of discrete 2D and 3D systems, their functionalizations and applications
TL;DR: Why interactome networks are important to consider in biology, how they can be mapped and integrated with each other, what global properties are starting to emerge from interactome network models, and how these properties may relate to human disease are detailed.
Abstract: Complex biological systems and cellular networks may underlie most genotype to phenotype relationships. Here, we review basic concepts in network biology, discussing different types of interactome networks and the insights that can come from analyzing them. We elaborate on why interactome networks are important to consider in biology, how they can be mapped and integrated with each other, what global properties are starting to emerge from interactome network models, and how these properties may relate to human disease.
TL;DR: It is shown by direct protein delivery into mammalian cells that an HP1 α mutant incapable of phase separation in vitro forms smaller and fewer nuclear puncta than phosphorylated HP1α, suggesting that heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing may occur in part through sequestration of compacted chromatin in phase-separated HP1 droplets, which are dissolved or formed by specific ligands on the basis of nuclear context.
Abstract: Gene silencing by heterochromatin is proposed to occur in part as a result of the ability of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins to spread across large regions of the genome, compact the underlying chromatin and recruit diverse ligands. Here we identify a new property of the human HP1α protein: the ability to form phase-separated droplets. While unmodified HP1α is soluble, either phosphorylation of its N-terminal extension or DNA binding promotes the formation of phase-separated droplets. Phosphorylation-driven phase separation can be promoted or reversed by specific HP1α ligands. Known components of heterochromatin such as nucleosomes and DNA preferentially partition into the HP1α droplets, but molecules such as the transcription factor TFIIB show no preference. Using a single-molecule DNA curtain assay, we find that both unmodified and phosphorylated HP1α induce rapid compaction of DNA strands into puncta, although with different characteristics. We show by direct protein delivery into mammalian cells that an HP1α mutant incapable of phase separation in vitro forms smaller and fewer nuclear puncta than phosphorylated HP1α. These findings suggest that heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing may occur in part through sequestration of compacted chromatin in phase-separated HP1 droplets, which are dissolved or formed by specific ligands on the basis of nuclear context.