scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

K.G. Winter

Bio: K.G. Winter is an academic researcher from Royal Aircraft Establishment. The author has contributed to research in topics: Boundary layer & Pitot tube. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 328 citations.

More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss force-measurement balances, the use of the velocity profile, pressure measurements by surface pitot tubes or about obstacles, and the analogies of heat transfer, mass transfer or surface oil flow.

337 citations

Cited by
More filters
27 Sep 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a detailed overview of the history of the field of flow simulation for MEMS and discuss the current state-of-the-art in this field.
Abstract: Part I: Background and Fundamentals Introduction, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame Scaling of Micromechanical Devices, William Trimmer, Standard MEMS, Inc., and Robert H. Stroud, Aerospace Corporation Mechanical Properties of MEMS Materials, William N. Sharpe, Jr., Johns Hopkins University Flow Physics, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame Integrated Simulation for MEMS: Coupling Flow-Structure-Thermal-Electrical Domains, Robert M. Kirby and George Em Karniadakis, Brown University, and Oleg Mikulchenko and Kartikeya Mayaram, Oregon State University Liquid Flows in Microchannels, Kendra V. Sharp and Ronald J. Adrian, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Juan G. Santiago and Joshua I. Molho, Stanford University Burnett Simulations of Flows in Microdevices, Ramesh K. Agarwal and Keon-Young Yun, Wichita State University Molecular-Based Microfluidic Simulation Models, Ali Beskok, Texas A&M University Lubrication in MEMS, Kenneth S. Breuer, Brown University Physics of Thin Liquid Films, Alexander Oron, Technion, Israel Bubble/Drop Transport in Microchannels, Hsueh-Chia Chang, University of Notre Dame Fundamentals of Control Theory, Bill Goodwine, University of Notre Dame Model-Based Flow Control for Distributed Architectures, Thomas R. Bewley, University of California, San Diego Soft Computing in Control, Mihir Sen and Bill Goodwine, University of Notre Dame Part II: Design and Fabrication Materials for Microelectromechanical Systems Christian A. Zorman and Mehran Mehregany, Case Western Reserve University MEMS Fabrication, Marc J. Madou, Nanogen, Inc. LIGA and Other Replication Techniques, Marc J. Madou, Nanogen, Inc. X-Ray-Based Fabrication, Todd Christenson, Sandia National Laboratories Electrochemical Fabrication (EFAB), Adam L. Cohen, MEMGen Corporation Fabrication and Characterization of Single-Crystal Silicon Carbide MEMS, Robert S. Okojie, NASA Glenn Research Center Deep Reactive Ion Etching for Bulk Micromachining of Silicon Carbide, Glenn M. Beheim, NASA Glenn Research Center Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Applications, Gary W. Hunter, NASA Glenn Research Center, Chung-Chiun Liu, Case Western Reserve University, and Darby B. Makel, Makel Engineering, Inc. Packaging of Harsh-Environment MEMS Devices, Liang-Yu Chen and Jih-Fen Lei, NASA Glenn Research Center Part III: Applications of MEMS Inertial Sensors, Paul L. Bergstrom, Michigan Technological University, and Gary G. Li, OMM, Inc. Micromachined Pressure Sensors, Jae-Sung Park, Chester Wilson, and Yogesh B. Gianchandani, University of Wisconsin-Madison Sensors and Actuators for Turbulent Flows. Lennart Loefdahl, Chalmers University of Technology, and Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame Surface-Micromachined Mechanisms, Andrew D. Oliver and David W. Plummer, Sandia National Laboratories Microrobotics Thorbjoern Ebefors and Goeran Stemme, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden Microscale Vacuum Pumps, E. Phillip Muntz, University of Southern California, and Stephen E. Vargo, SiWave, Inc. Microdroplet Generators. Fan-Gang Tseng, National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan Micro Heat Pipes and Micro Heat Spreaders, G. P. "Bud" Peterson, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Microchannel Heat Sinks, Yitshak Zohar, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Flow Control, Mohamed Gad-el-Hak, University of Notre Dame) Part IV: The Future Reactive Control for Skin-Friction Reduction, Haecheon Choi, Seoul National University Towards MEMS Autonomous Control of Free-Shear Flows, Ahmed Naguib, Michigan State University Fabrication Technologies for Nanoelectromechanical Systems, Gary H. Bernstein, Holly V. Goodson, and Gregory L. Snider, University of Notre Dame Index

951 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, three relatively modern categories of skin-friction measurement techniques are broadly classified as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based sensors, oil-film interferometry, and liquid crystal coatings.

384 citations

01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the high Reynolds number zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers in an incompressible flow without any effects of heat-transfer and found that the inner limit of overlap region was found to scale on the viscous length scale (ν/uτ) and was estimated to be y = 200.
Abstract: This thesis deals with the problem of high Reynolds number zero pressuregradient turbulent boundary layers in an incompressible flow without any effects of heat-transfer. The zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer is one of the canonical shear flows important in many applications and of large theoretical interest. The investigation was carried out through an experimental study in the MTL wind-tunnel at KTH, where the fluctuating velocity components and the fluctuating wall-shear stress in a turbulent boundary layer were measured using hot-wire and hot-film anemometry. Attempts were made to answer some basic and “classical” questions concerning turbulent boundary boundary layers. The classical two layer theory was confirmed and constant values of the slope of the logarithmic overlap region (i.e. the von Karman constant) and the additive constants were found and estimated to κ = 0.38, B = 4.1 and B1 = 3.6 (δ = δ95). The inner limit of overlap region was found to scale on the viscous length scale (ν/uτ) and was estimated to be y = 200, i.e. considerably further out compared to previous knowledge. The outer limit of the overlap region was found to scale on the outer length scale and was estimated to be y/δ = 0.15. This also means that a universal overlap region only can exist for Reynolds numbers of at least Reθ ≈ 6000. The values of the newly determined limits explain the Reynolds number variation found in some earlier experiments. Measurements of the fluctuating wall-shear stress using the hot-wire-onthe-wall technique and a MEMS hot-film sensor show that the turbulence intensity τr.m.s./τw is close to 0.41 at Reθ ≈ 9800. A numerical and experimental investigation of the behavior of double wire probes were carried out and showed that the Peclet number based on wire separation should be larger than about 50 to ensure an acceptably low level of thermal interaction. Results are presented for two-point correlations between the wall-shear stress and the streamwise velocity component for separations in both the wallnormal-streamwise plane and the wall-normal-spanwise plane. Turbulence producing events are further investigated using conditional averaging of isolated shear-layer events. Comparisons are made with results from other experiments and numerical simulations. Descriptors: Fluid mechanics, turbulence, boundary layers, high Reynolds number, zero-pressure gradient, hot-wire, hot-film anemometry, oil-film interferometry, structures, streak spacing, micro-electro-mechanical-systems.

322 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparative study of wind-tunnel and CFD techniques to determine pedestrian-level wind speeds expressed generally in terms of amplification factors defined as the ratio of local mean wind speeds to mean wind speed at the same position without buildings present is presented.

272 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a microfabricated floating-element shear-stress sensor for measurements in turbulent boundary-layers is reported using surface micromachining of polyimide.
Abstract: A microfabricated floating-element shear-stress sensor for measurements in turbulent boundary-layers is reported. Using surface micromachining of polyimide, a 500- mu m*500- mu m probe has been fabricated incorporating a differential-capacitor readout circuit. A model for the sensor response is described and is used for the design of an element to measure shear stresses of 1 Pa in air. The sensor is packaged for calibration in laminar flow, and electrical results obtained match the expected response. >

211 citations