K. N. Raju
Bio: K. N. Raju is an academic researcher from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. The author has contributed to research in topics: Basalt & Population. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 11 publications receiving 310 citations. Previous affiliations of K. N. Raju include Pondicherry Engineering College & Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences.
TL;DR: In this article, an approximate analysis using a bilinear representation of the stress-strain behavior has been made for the energy of plastic deformation at the tip of a crack growing under sinusoidal loading of constant amplitude.
Abstract: An approximate analysis using a bilinear representation of the stress-strain behaviour has been made for the energy of plastic deformation at the tip of a crack growing under sinusoidal loading of constant amplitude. The energy of plastic deformation results from hysteretic and non-hysteretic plastic deformation. It is shown that the energy due to hysteresis is independent of the rate of growth of the crack whereas energy due to non-hysteretic plastic deformation is dependent on growth rate. Work hardening due to hysteretic plastic deformation is not considered in the analysis. The energy balance criterion which is basic to fracture mechanics has been applied to the problem of crack growth under cyclic loading, considering the energy due to hysteretic plastic deformation in the plastic enclave as obtained in the analysis. The equation of energy balance results in an expression for crack growth rate, consistent with the general trends observed in experiments. Some of the merits and limitations of the energy formulation of fatigue crack growth have been discussed.
TL;DR: In this article, a general solution for the symmetric bending stress distribution at the tip of a crack in a plate taking shear deformation into account through Reissner's theory is developed.
Abstract: A general solution is developed for the symmetric bending stress distribution at the tip of a crack in a plate taking shear deformation into account through Reissner's theory. The solution is obtained in terms of polar coordinates at the crack tip and includes the complete class of solutions satisfying all the three boundary conditions along the crack. The solution has arbitrary multiplicative constants and in specific problems, these constants can be determined from conditions on the exterior boundary by well-known numerical techniques such as collocation, successive integration. Results of a numerical solution for a square plate with a central crack subject to uniaxial bending are presented along with a critical discussion of the sensitivity of the numerical solution which is associated with the exponential character of Bessel terms in this higher order analytical solution.
TL;DR: In this paper, major, trace, rare earth (REE) and platinum group elements (PGE) have been analyzed from carbonaceous horizons of Permian Barakar Formation of Sattupalli coal field of Godavari Valley to understand the provenance and depositional environment.
01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: The rapid increase in population, increased longevity and high ethnic susceptibility to diabetes, coupled with rapid urbanization and changes from traditional lifestyles, will most likely trigger a diabetes epidemic in India.
Abstract: Diabetes is rapidly emerging as a major health care problem in India, especially in urban areas. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been steadily increasing in urban areas from a low of 2.1% reported in early 1970 to a whopping 11.6% in 1996, in the adult population. Moreover, there is an equally large pool of persons with IGT, many of whom will go on to develop type 2 diabetes in the future . There is evidence to suggest that prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing even in rural areas. The rapid increase in population, increased longevity and high ethnic susceptibility to diabetes, coupled with rapid urbanization and changes from traditional lifestyles, will most likely trigger a diabetes epidemic. The WHO estimates that there were 19.4 million persons with diabetes in India in 1995 and that this number is likely to be 57.2 million 2025. These figures are based on lower estimated prevalence rates than currently seen. Moreover, type 2 diabetes amongst Indians is being increasingly seen in younger, less obese persons than reported in the west.
TL;DR: A rare association of basalt, andesite, dacite and ultrapotassic volcanic flows is present, together with basalts, komatiites, and banded iron formation (BIF), in the Neoarchean Sigegudda greenstone terrane of the western Dharwar craton as mentioned in this paper.
01 Jan 1961
TL;DR: In this paper, geochemical, zircon U-Pb geochronology and Lu-Hf isotope data from a suite of magmatic rocks sampled from the region of confluence of two major Paleoproterozoic suture zones in the North China Craton (NCC) were presented.
TL;DR: The findings verified the close correlation of BCAAs and AAAs with insulin resistance and future development of diabetes in Chinese populations and highlighted the predictive value of these markers for futureDevelopment of diabetes.
Abstract: Recent studies revealed strong evidence that branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) are closely associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in several Western countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential role of BCAAs and AAAs in predicting the diabetes development in Chinese populations. The serum levels of valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine were measured in a longitudinal and a cross sectional studies with a total of 429 Chinese participants at different stages of diabetes development, using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography triple quadruple mass spectrometry platform. The alterations of the five AAs in Chinese populations are well in accordance with previous reports. Early elevation of the five AAs and their combined score was closely associated with future development of diabetes, suggesting an important role of these metabolites as early markers of diabetes. On the other hand, the five AAs were not as good as existing clinical markers in differentiating diabetic patients from their healthy counterparts. Our findings verified the close correlation of BCAAs and AAAs with insulin resistance and future development of diabetes in Chinese populations and highlighted the predictive value of these markers for future development of diabetes.
TL;DR: In this article, three mineralization styles are identified in metalliferous coal deposits: tuffaceous, hydrothermal-fluid, and mixed-tuffaceous-hydrothermal types.
TL;DR: It is found that major complications of diabetes significantly increased hospital use and costs across settings and over 11,000 participants with type 2 diabetes from 20 countries were examined.
Abstract: Background Diabetes imposes a substantial burden globally in terms of premature mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Estimates of economic outcomes associated with diabetes are essential inputs to policy analyses aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes. Our objective was to estimate and compare event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major diabetes-related complications in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Methods and Findings Incidence and history of diabetes-related complications, hospital admissions, and length of stay were recorded in 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease (ADVANCE) study (mean age at entry 66 y). The probability of hospital utilization and number of days in hospital for major events associated with coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and nephropathy were estimated for three regions (Asia, Eastern Europe, and Established Market Economies) using multiple regression analysis. The resulting estimates of days spent in hospital were multiplied by regional estimates of the costs per hospital bed-day from the World Health Organization to compute annual acute and long-term costs associated with the different types of complications. To assist, comparability, costs are reported in international dollars (Int$), which represent a hypothetical currency that allows for the same quantities of goods or services to be purchased regardless of country, standardized on purchasing power in the United States. A cost calculator accompanying this paper enables the estimation of costs for individual countries and translation of these costs into local currency units. The probability of attending a hospital following an event was highest for heart failure (93%–96% across regions) and lowest for nephropathy (15%–26%). The average numbers of days in hospital given at least one admission were greatest for stroke (17–32 d across region) and heart failure (16–31 d) and lowest for nephropathy (12–23 d). Considering regional differences, probabilities of hospitalization were lowest in Asia and highest in Established Market Economies; on the other hand, lengths of stay were highest in Asia and lowest in Established Market Economies. Overall estimated annual hospital costs for patients with none of the specified events or event histories ranged from Int$76 in Asia to Int$296 in Established Market Economies. All complications included in this analysis led to significant increases in hospital costs; coronary events, cerebrovascular events, and heart failure were the most costly, at more than Int$1,800, Int$3,000, and Int$4,000 in Asia, Eastern Europe, and Established Market Economies, respectively. Conclusions Major complications of diabetes significantly increase hospital use and costs across various settings and are likely to impose a high economic burden on health care systems. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary