Bio: K.S. Bishnupuri is an academic researcher from Banaras Hindu University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Indian palm squirrel. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 25 citation(s).
Topics: Indian palm squirrel
07 Aug 2001-Neurosignals
TL;DR: The results support the earlier concept and show for the first time that MEL can be transported from the mother to the young either prenatally through the placenta or postnatally via the milk in order to influence neonatal growth and sexual maturation.
Abstract: To date, the phenomenon of maternal transfer of hormones to the young is an enigma. The present study explains for the first time the maternal transfer of melatonin (MEL) to the young, affecting neona
25 Feb 2008-Journal of Pineal Research
TL;DR: A local synthesis of melatonin and expression of its receptors in human trophoblasts is demonstrated for the first time and strongly suggests a paracrine, autocrine, and/or intracrine role for this indolamine in placental function and development as well as in protection from oxidative stress.
Abstract: Although the role of melatonin on fetal development has been the subject of a number of studies, little is known about the function of melatonin in the placenta. We previously showed that melatonin receptors are expressed and are functional in JEG-3 and BeWo cell lines, both in vitro models of human trophoblast. Local synthesis of melatonin in placenta has been proposed, but the human placenta's ability to synthesize melatonin de novo has never been studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression [reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis] and activity (radiometric assay) of melatonin synthesizing enzymes, and characterize the expression of the melatoninergic receptors in human term villous trophoblast. The results show that arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase melatonin synthesizing enzymes are expressed and active in villous trophoblast as well as in JEG-3 and BeWo placental choriocarcinoma cells. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of MT1, MT2, and retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha melatonin receptor proteins in both villous cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast (STB) as well as in endothelial cells surrounding the fetal capillaries and in the villous mesenchymal core. RT-PCR and western blot analysis in primary cultures of human term trophoblast confirmed the expression of all three melatonin receptors in villous cytotrophoblast and STB cells. This study demonstrates for the first time a local synthesis of melatonin and expression of its receptors in human trophoblasts and strongly suggests a paracrine, autocrine, and/or intracrine role for this indolamine in placental function and development as well as in protection from oxidative stress.
TL;DR: The data suggest that fatigue, stress, depression, and infection are related in postpartum mothers and that these relationships extend to levels of serum hormones and milk factors.
Abstract: Purpose To explore relationships between fatigue, depression, stress, and infection in the postpartum. Study design and methods This was a cross-sectional, correlational design with a sample of 119 new mothers at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers completed fatigue, mood, and stress instruments as well as maternal and infant infection checklists. Morning blood and hindmilk (in breastfeeders) samples were collected. ELISA was used to measure prolactin, cortisol, melatonin, and secretory IgA (sIgA). Correlations between psychosocial, health, and biologic variables were explored. Results Fatigue was correlated with symptoms of infection in both mothers and babies, with perceived stress and postpartum stress as well as with depression. Serum prolactin was inversely associated with depression. Milk sIgA was related to milk prolactin and inversely related to stress. Milk melatonin and prolactin were inversely related, and fatigue scores were correlated with melatonin and inversely with prolactin. Clinical implications The data suggest that fatigue, stress, depression, and infection are related in postpartum mothers and that these relationships extend to levels of serum hormones and milk factors. It is possible that a cycle is established that multiplies the effects of fatigue when mothers experience stress and that this cycle of stress and fatigue may lead to immune deficits and infectious illnesses.
01 Aug 2006-Human Reproduction
TL;DR: These results demonstrate, for the first time, the expression of melatonin receptors in human term placental tissues and in choriocarcinoma cells and suggest a possible paracrine/autocrine function for melatonin in human placenta.
Abstract: Lanoix D, Ouellette R, Vaillancourt C. Melatonin crosses the placenta and enters the fetal circulation. Moreover, experimental data suggest a possible influence of melatonin on placental function and fetal development in humans. To date, the expression and role of melatonin receptors in human placenta choriocarcinoma cell lines and in human term placental tissues remain to be elucidated. METHODS AND RESULTS : Results from RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy demonstrated that the (...)
TL;DR: It may be suggested that a physiological cross talk exist between Mel and GR which is of high adaptive significance in wild animals for balancing the immunity during ecologically stressful conditions.
Abstract: Immunoenhancing attributes of melatonin (Mel) on the immunocompromised state induced by glucocorticoid is well known, but the involvement of their receptors in the modulation of immunity has never been studied in any rodent. The present study explores the role of Mel and its receptors (MT1 and MT2) in amelioration of immunocompromised state induced by a synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (Dex) in a tropical rodent Funambulus pennanti. Immune parameters viz. DTH response, Lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine (IL-2) and antibody production were assessed following pretreatment of Mel and Dex alone or in combination. Mel enhanced the IL-2 production, thymic and splenic lymphocyte proliferation thereby increasing T helper cell associated immune responses and anti-KLH-IgG production. MT1 and MT2 receptor expression was downregulated following Dex treatment while glucocorticoid receptors (GR) expression was downregulated in Mel treated groups suggesting that the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids and Mel are mediated via their receptors. To gain further insights on the role of Mel receptors, we used nonselective melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole which resulted in reversal of most of the immunomodulatory actions of Mel. Therefore, it may be suggested that a physiological cross talk exist between Mel and GR which is of high adaptive significance in wild animals for balancing the immunity during ecologically stressful conditions.
07 Jul 2009-Chronobiology International
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that mothers of precocial birds influence epigenetically the ontogeny of endogenous rhythms of the young they raise, as well as rhythmic phenotypes of quail mothers influence the rhythmicphenotypes of their young.
Abstract: Development involves interactions between genetic and environmental influences. Vertebrate mothers are generally the first individuals to encounter and interact with young animals. Thus, their role is primordial during ontogeny. The present study evaluated non-genomic effects of mothers on the development of rhythms of precocial Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica). First, we investigated the influence of mothering on the ontogeny of endogenous rhythms of young. We compared circadian and ultradian rhythms of feeding activity of quail reared with or without adoptive mothers. More brooded than non-brooded quail presented a circadian and/or an ultradian rhythm. Thus, the presence of the mother during the normal brooding period favors, in the long term, expression of rhythms in the young. Second, we investigated the influence of rhythmic phenotype of the mother on the development of endogenous rhythms of young by comparing quail brooded by circadian-rhythmic adoptive mothers (R) to quail brooded by circadian-arrhythmic adoptive mothers (A). More R-brooded than A-brooded quail expressed circadian rhythmicity, and circadian rhythm clarities were greater in R-brooded than A-brooded quail. Ultradian rhythmicity did not differ between R- and A-brooded quail, nor between R and A adoptive mothers. Thus, the rhythmic phenotypes of quail mothers influence the rhythmic phenotypes of their young. Our results demonstrate that mothers of precocial birds influence epigenetically the ontogeny of endogenous rhythms of the young they raise.