Bio: K.S. Rajam is an academic researcher from National Aerospace Laboratories. The author has contributed to research in topics: Sputter deposition & Nanoindentation. The author has an hindex of 42, co-authored 83 publications receiving 4765 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the structural and mechanical properties of CrN and CrAlN coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation techniques, respectively.
Abstract: Approximately 1.5 μm thick CrN and CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and mild steel substrates by reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The structural and mechanical properties of the coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation techniques, respectively. The bonding structure of the coatings was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology of the coatings was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The XRD data showed that the CrN and CrAlN coatings exhibited B1 NaCl structure. Nanoindentation measurements showed that as-deposited CrN and CrAlN coatings exhibited a hardness of 18 and 33 GPa, respectively. Results of the surface analysis of the as-deposited coatings using SEM and AFM showed a more compact and dense microstructure for CrAlN coatings. The thermal stability of the coatings was studied by heating the coatings in air from 400 to 900 °C. The structural changes as a result of heating were studied using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The Raman data revealed that CrN coatings got oxidized at 600 °C, whereas in the case of CrAlN coatings, no detectable oxides were formed even at 800 °C. After annealing up to 700 °C, the CrN coatings displayed a hardness of only about 7.5 GPa as compared to CrAlN coatings, which exhibited hardness as high as 22.5 GPa. The potentiodynamic polarization measurements in 3.5% NaCl solution indicated that the CrAlN coatings exhibited superior corrosion resistance as compared to CrN coatings.
Abstract: Ni–Co alloys with varying cobalt content were electrodeposited employing sulphamate electrolyte. The changes in microstructure and corrosion behavior of electrodeposited nickel with respect to cobalt addition were studied. Scanning electron microscope, optical microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis were used to characterize the alloy coatings. The alloy co-deposition was observed to be anomalous type. The cross-section microhardness measurement indicated that the hardness reached the maxima for a cobalt content of 50 wt.% and then dropped with the increase in cobalt content. A correlation between microhardness and microstructure has been attempted. The optical micrographs indicated a change in microstructure from mixed columnar-fibrous to lamellar and finally to fibrous with increase in cobalt content. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicated the crystal structure to be cubic for cobalt content in the range of 0–50 wt.%. A transition to hexagonal structure was observed for a cobalt content of 70 wt.% and beyond. A change in preferred orientation was also observed with respect to cobalt addition. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies were used to study the corrosion behavior of Ni–Co alloys. The physical behavior was quantified with equivalent circuit. These studies indicated that the Ni–20% Co alloy exhibited better corrosion resistance in comparison to other Ni–Co alloys, plain nickel and plain cobalt coatings irrespective of the substrate (mild steel, brass) employed for deposition.
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of copper and tungsten in alkaline electroless nickel baths has been studied in depositing Ni-Cu-P and Ni-W-P alloys.
Abstract: Interest in electroless plating of nickel-based ternary alloys has increased because of their excellent corrosion, wear, thermal and electrical resistance. They also possess good magnetic properties. In the present investigation, the effect of copper and tungsten in alkaline electroless nickel baths has been studied in depositing Ni–Cu–P and Ni–W–P alloys and also the synergistic effect of ions in depositing Ni–W–Cu–P alloys. Deposits were characterized using XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. XRD results revealed that not much variation in structure and grain size has been found in Ni–Cu–P deposit. A decrease in phosphorus content and a marginal increase in grain size have been observed due to the tungsten addition in the Ni–P deposit. Addition of copper in Ni–W–P baths has resulted in a quaternary deposit, Ni–W–Cu–P, with increased crystallinity. SEM studies showed that presence of coarse nodules in ternary Ni–Cu–P and Ni–W–P deposits. Addition of copper in Ni–W–P baths has resulted in a very smooth deposit. Studies by AFM on deposits have proved that the copper has suppressed coarse nodules by inhibiting their growth in quaternary deposit. No considerable change in hardness has been noticed in both as-plated and heat-treated deposits due to the inclusion of copper in Ni–W–P deposit. A marginal improvement in corrosion resistance has been observed in quaternary alloy compared to ternary (Ni–Cu–P or Ni–W–P) alloys.
TL;DR: In this article, nanolayered TiAlN/CrN multilayer films were deposited on silicon substrates from a TiAl target using a reactive DC magnetron sputtering process in Ar+N 2 plasma.
Abstract: TiAlN films were deposited on silicon (1 1 1) substrates from a TiAl target using a reactive DC magnetron sputtering process in Ar+N 2 plasma. Films were prepared at various nitrogen flow rates and TiAl target compositions. Similarly, CrN films were prepared from the reactive sputtering of Cr target. Subsequently, nanolayered TiAlN/CrN multilayer films were deposited at various modulation wavelengths ( Λ ). X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy were used to characterize the films. The XRD confirmed the formation of superlattice structure at low modulation wavelengths. The maximum hardness of TiAlN/CrN multilayers was 3900 kg/mm 2 , whereas TiAlN and CrN films exhibited maximum hardnesses of 3850 and 1000 kg/mm 2 , respectively. Thermal stability of TiAlN and TiAlN/CrN multilayer films was studied by heating the films in air in the temperature range ( T A ) of 500–900 °C for 30 min. The XRD spectra revealed that TiAlN/CrN multilayers were stable up to 800 °C and got oxidized substantially at 900 °C. On the other hand, the TiAlN films were stable up to 700 °C and got completely oxidized at 800 °C. Nanoindentation measurements performed on the films after heat treatment showed that TiAlN retained a hardness of 2200 kg/mm 2 at T A =700 °C and TiAlN/CrN multilayers retained hardness as high as 2600 kg/mm 2 upon annealing at 800° C.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used x-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structural properties of nanolayered multilayer coatings.
Abstract: About 1.5-um-thick single-layer TiN, CrN, TiAlN coatings and nanolayered TiN/CrN, TiAlN/CrN multilayer coatings were deposited on silicon (111) substrates using a13; reactive direct current magnetron sputtering process. Structural characterization of the coatings was done using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. All13; the coatings exhibited NaCl B1 structure in the XRD data. Raman spectroscopy data of as-deposited coatings exhibited two broad bands centered at 230x2013;250 and 540x2013;630 cmx2212;1.13; These bands have been assigned to acoustical and optical phonon modes, respectively. Thermal stability of the coatings was studied by heating the coatings in air in a13; resistive furnace for 30 min in the temperature range 400x2013;900 xB0;C. Structural changes as a result of heating were characterized using Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Raman13; data showed that TiN, CrN, TiN/CrN, TiAlN, and TiAlN/CrN coatings started to oxidize at 500, 600, 750, 800, and 900 xB0;C, respectively. To isolate the oxidation-induced spectral changes as a result of heating of the coatings in air, samples were also annealed in vacuum at 800 xB0;C under similar conditions. The Raman data of vacuum-annealed coatings showed no phase transformation, and intensity of the optical phonon mode increased and shifted to lower frequencies. The origin of these spectral changes is discussed in terms of defect structure of the coatings. Our results indicate that the thermal stability of nanolayered multilayer coatings is superior to the13; single-layer coatings.
TL;DR: In this paper, the recent developments and trends in combustion science towards the synthesis of nanomaterials are discussed, and different modifications made to conventional combustion approaches for preparation of nano-materials are critically analyzed.
Abstract: The recent developments and trends in combustion science towards the synthesis of nanomaterials are discussed. Different modifications made to conventional combustion approaches for preparation of nanomaterials are critically analyzed. Special attention is paid to various applications of combustion synthesized nanosized products.
TL;DR: The development of metal deposition processes based on electroless nickel, alloy and composite coatings on various surfaces has witnessed a surge in interest among researchers, with many recent applications made possible from many excellent properties as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The development of metal deposition processes based on electroless nickel, alloy and composite coatings on various surfaces has witnessed a surge in interest among researchers, with many recent applications made possible from many excellent properties. In recent years, these coatings have shown promising corrosion and wear resistance properties and large number of newer developments became most important from macro to nano level applications. After a brief review of the fundamental aspects underlying the coating processes, this paper discusses in detail about different electroless nickel alloy, composite, nano plating, bath techniques, preparation, characterization, new depositing mechanism and their recent applications, including brief notes on difficult substrate and waste treatment for green environment. Emphasis will be onto their recent progress, which will be discussed in detail and critically reviewed.
TL;DR: In this paper, the state-of-the-art physical vapor deposited solar selective coatings used for solar thermal applications with an emphasis on sputter deposited coatings for high-temperature applications.
Abstract: Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy. The direct method of harnessing solar energy is the solar thermal conversion method using solar absorbers. The absorbers are coated with solar selective coatings with high absorptance and low thermal emittance. Spectrally selective coatings which are stable up to temperatures ≤300 °C (in air and vacuum) have been developed in the past. These coatings are mainly deposited from wet chemical routes (e.g., electrodeposition) and have been reviewed widely in the literature. Because of the environmental issues as well as low thermal stability of these wet chemical deposited coatings, researchers all over the world started looking for other alternative routes such as physical vapor deposited (PVD) coatings. A great deal of research has been carried out since 1990s to develop PVD coatings for both mid- and high-temperature applications. The mid-temperature coatings are used mainly for solar hot water and industrial process heat applications, whereas, the high-temperature absorber coatings are used in concentrating solar power systems for solar thermal power generation. It is well recognized that in order to increase the efficiency of solar thermal power plants, solar selective coatings with high thermal stability are required. In recent years, significant efforts have been made in the field of solar selective coatings to achieve high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance at higher temperatures ( T ≥400 °C). Transition metal based cermets have emerged as novel high temperature solar selective coatings, which are currently being used for solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. Solar selective coatings based on transition metal nitrides, oxides and oxynitrides also hold great potential for high-temperature applications because of their excellent mechanical and optical properties, which are yet to be commercialized. In this review, we present the state-of-the-art of the physical vapor deposited solar selective coatings used for solar thermal applications with an emphasis on sputter deposited coatings for high-temperature applications. A detailed survey, covering the period 1970-present, has been made for the PVD deposited solar selective coatings with high absorptance and low emittance. This review article also describes in detail about the commercially available PVD coatings for flat-plate/evacuated tube collectors and solar thermal power generation applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-Energy) gave DE-AR0000471 and DE-ARM0000181 for the first time, respectively.
Abstract: United States. Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (Awards DE-AR0000471 and DE-AR0000181)
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the tribological advancement of different electroless nickel coatings based on the bath types, structure and also the tribo testing parameters in recent years.
Abstract: Electroless coating is different from the conventional electrolytic coating as the former does not require any electricity for its operation. The advantages include uniform coating and also nonconductive materials can be coated. Electroless nickel coatings possess splendid tribological properties such as high hardness, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance. For this reason, electroless nickel has found wide applications in aerospace, automobile, electrical and chemical industries. Quest for improved tribological performances has led many researchers to develop and investigate newer variants of electroless nickel coatings like Ni–W–P, Ni–Cu–P, Ni–P–SiC, Ni–P–TiO2, and so on. Also the enhancement of tribological characteristics through modification of the coating process parameters has remained a key point of interest in researchers. The technological advancement demands the development of newer coating materials with improved resistance against wear and tear. Electroless nickel has shown huge potential to fit in that space and so the study of its tribological advancement deserves a thorough and exhaustive study. The present article reviews mainly the tribological advancement of different electroless nickel coatings based on the bath types, structure and also the tribo testing parameters in recent years.