Other affiliations: Johannes Kepler University of Linz
Bio: Kai-Uwe Schröder is an academic researcher from RWTH Aachen University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Buckling & Finite element method. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 127 publications receiving 700 citations. Previous affiliations of Kai-Uwe Schröder include Johannes Kepler University of Linz.
TL;DR: The study shows for the first time that AM of porous Mg may provide distinct possibilities to adjust biodegradation profile through topological design and open up unprecedented opportunities to develop multifunctional bone substituting materials that mimic bone properties and enable full regeneration of critical-size load-bearing bony defects.
Abstract: An ideal bone substituting material should be bone-mimicking in terms of mechanical properties, present a precisely controlled and fully interconnected porous structure, and degrade in the human body to allow for full regeneration of large bony defects. However, simultaneously satisfying all these three requirements has so far been highly challenging. Here we present topologically ordered porous magnesium (WE43) scaffolds based on the diamond unit cell that were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and satisfy all the requirements. We studied the in vitro biodegradation behavior (up to 4 weeks), mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the developed scaffolds. The mechanical properties of the AM porous WE43 (E = 700–800 MPa) scaffolds were found to fall into the range of the values reported for trabecular bone even after 4 weeks of biodegradation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical tests and µCT revealed a unique biodegradation mechanism that started with uniform corrosion, followed by localized corrosion, particularly in the center of the scaffolds. Biocompatibility tests performed up to 72 h showed level 0 cytotoxicity (according to ISO 10993-5 and -12), except for one time point (i.e., 24 h). Intimate contact between cells (MG-63) and the scaffolds was also observed in SEM images. The study shows for the first time that AM of porous Mg may provide distinct possibilities to adjust biodegradation profile through topological design and open up unprecedented opportunities to develop multifunctional bone substituting materials that mimic bone properties and enable full regeneration of critical-size load-bearing bony defects. Statement of Significance The ideal biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration should be bone-mimicking in terms of mechanical properties, present a fully interconnected porous structure, and exhibit a specific biodegradation behavior to enable full regeneration of bony defects. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have resulted in biomaterials that satisfy the first two requirements but simultaneously satisfying the third requirement has proven challenging so far. Here we present additively manufactured porous magnesium structures that have the potential to satisfy all above-mentioned requirements. Even after 4 weeks of biodegradation, the mechanical properties of the porous structures were found to be within those reported for native bone. Moreover, our comprehensive electrochemical, mechanical, topological, and biological study revealed a unique biodegradation behavior and the limited cytotoxicity of the developed biomaterials.
TL;DR: Hybrid composite pyramidal truss sandwich panels combined with multiple damping configurations are fabricated in this article to investigate the damping and stiffness efficiency of the candidate structures, and experimental results show that such structures combined with damping materials would significantly improve damping loss efficiency but decrease simultaneously the stiffness efficiency in varying degrees compared with the bare hybrid sandwich panels.
Abstract: Hybrid composite pyramidal truss sandwich panels combined with multiple damping configurations are fabricated in this work. Modal and quasi-static compressive tests are carried out to investigate the damping and stiffness efficiency of the candidate structures. Experimental results show that such structures combined with damping materials would significantly improve the damping loss efficiency but decrease simultaneously the stiffness efficiency in varying degrees compared with the bare hybrid sandwich panels. In order to evaluate the compatible effect of total damping and stiffness efficiency of the present sandwich structures, a synthetic evaluation criterion is developed, which shows that bare sandwich panels filled with hard polyurethane foam (B-II-HPF) and soft polyurethane foam (B-II-SPF) can yield the best performance up to 2–4 times higher than the base hybrid sandwich panels. It is also shown that multiple patch damping treatments based on the finite element-modal strain energy (FE-MSE) approach are suitable and effective to further improve the total damping efficiency.
11 Nov 2019-Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
TL;DR: The next generation magnetic spectrometer in space, AMS-100, is designed to have a geometrical acceptance of 100 m2 sr and to be operated for at least ten years at the Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2.
Abstract: The next generation magnetic spectrometer in space, AMS-100, is designed to have a geometrical acceptance of 100 m 2 sr and to be operated for at least ten years at the Sun–Earth Lagrange Point 2. Compared to existing experiments, it will improve the sensitivity for the observation of new phenomena in cosmic rays, and in particular in cosmic antimatter, by at least a factor of 1000. The magnet design is based on high temperature superconductor tapes, which allow the construction of a thin solenoid with a homogeneous magnetic field of 1 Tesla inside. The inner volume is instrumented with a silicon tracker reaching a maximum detectable rigidity of 100 TV and a calorimeter system that is 70 radiation lengths deep, equivalent to four nuclear interaction lengths, which extends the energy reach for cosmic-ray nuclei up to the PeV scale, i.e. beyond the cosmic-ray knee. Covering most of the sky continuously, AMS-100 will detect high-energy gamma-rays in the calorimeter system and by pair conversion in the thin solenoid, reconstructed with excellent angular resolution in the silicon tracker.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of imperfections on the load carrying capacity of shell structures is considered by reducing theoretical buckling loads with empirical knock down factors, which may lead to a conservative estimate of the load-carrying capacity since a worst case scenario is considered.
Abstract: Thin walled circular cylindrical shell structures are prone to buckle and very sensitive towards geometrical imperfections. The influence of imperfections on the load carrying capacity of shell structures, as they are applied in launcher vehicles is considered by reducing theoretical buckling loads with empirical knock down factors. In general, these knock down factors may lead to a conservative estimate of the load carrying capacity since a worst case scenario is considered. In order to exploit the lightweight design potential of a structure, theoretical approaches to account for geometrical imperfections may lead to more adequate buckling load predictions. Within this contribution different theoretical approaches to account for geometrical imperfections of isotropic shell structures subjected to axial compression are investigated, and the influence of these approaches on the buckling load obtained is studied.
TL;DR: In this article, a composite auxetic double-arrow corrugated sandwich panels (DACSPs) are analyzed based on energy method and 3D finite element (FE) models combined with Modal Strain Energy (MSE) approach are developed to investigate their vibration and damping characteristics.
Abstract: Auxetic materials and structures as a class of metamaterials have been extensively studied and evaluated for many applications. This paper focuses on the fabrication and vibration damping of the carbon fiber composite auxetic double-arrow corrugated sandwich panels (DACSPs). The negative Poisson’s ratio effects of the composite auxetic DACSPs are analytically studied based on energy method. 3D finite element (FE) models combined with Modal Strain Energy (MSE) approach are developed to investigate their vibration and damping characteristics. To validate the numerical models in the present study, the composite auxetic DACSPs and such structures inserted with high damping layer are designed and manufactured. Modal vibration and three-point bending tests are conducted to investigate their vibration damping and bending responses. The results show that the 3D FE models combined with MSE approach are valid to predict the modal properties of the composite auxetic DACSPs. The influence of the different inclined corrugated angles on the natural frequencies and damping loss factors are plotted and discussed. Meanwhile, the effect of Poisson’s ratio on the nominal Young’s modulus, natural frequencies and damping loss factors of the composite auxetic DACSPs are also revealed. It is observed from the results that it is possible to obtain both increased stiffness and high damping capacity of such composite auxetic DACSPs by optimizing the inclined corrugated angles and inserting suitable damping layers.
TL;DR: In 2018 and 2019, significant progress has been achieved in high-performance cast and wrought magnesium and magnesium alloys, such as Mg ion batteries, hydrogen storage Mg materials, bio-magnesium alloys and functional magnesium materials as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: In the past two years, significant progresses have been achieved in high-performance cast and wrought magnesium and magnesium alloys, magnesium-based composites, advanced cast technologies, advanced processing technologies, and functional magnesium materials, such as Mg ion batteries, hydrogen storage Mg materials, bio-magnesium alloys, etc. Great contributions to the development of new magnesium alloys and their processing technologies have been made by Chongqing University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Queensland University, Brunel University, etc. This review paper is aimed to summarize the latest important advances in cast magnesium alloys, wrought magnesium alloys and functional magnesium materials worldwide in 2018–2019, including both the development of new materials and the innovation of their processing technologies. Based on the issues and challenges identified here, some future research directions are suggested, including further development of high-performance magnesium alloys having high strength and superior plasticity together with high corrosion resistance and low cost, and fundamental research on the phase diagram, diffusion, precipitation, etc., as well as the development of advanced welding and joining technology.
TL;DR: The structure, mechanical properties and materials of natural bone and the strategies of bone tissue engineering, which includes the history, types, properties and applications of biomaterials, are described.
Abstract: Bone tissue engineering has been continuously developing since the concept of “tissue engineering” has been proposed. Biomaterials that are used as the basic material for the fabrication of scaffolds play a vital role in bone tissue engineering. This paper first introduces a strategy for literature search. Then, it describes the structure, mechanical properties and materials of natural bone and the strategies of bone tissue engineering. Particularly, it focuses on the current knowledge about biomaterials used in the fabrication of bone tissue engineering scaffolds, which includes the history, types, properties and applications of biomaterials. The effects of additives such as signaling molecules, stem cells, and functional materials on the performance of the scaffolds are also discussed.
TL;DR: A comprehensive analysis of different fabrication methods (traditional and free-form) were summarized in this review paper, with emphasis on recent developments in the field.
Abstract: A range of traditional and free-form fabrication technologies have been investigated and, in numerous occasions, commercialized for use in the field of regenerative tissue engineering (TE). The demand for technologies capable of treating bone defects inherently difficult to repair has been on the rise. This quest, accompanied by the advent of functionally tailored, biocompatible, and biodegradable materials, has garnered an enormous research interest in bone TE. As a result, different materials and fabrication methods have been investigated towards this end, leading to a deeper understanding of the geometrical, mechanical and biological requirements associated with bone scaffolds. As our understanding of the scaffold requirements expands, so do the capability requirements of the fabrication processes. The goal of this review is to provide a broad examination of existing scaffold fabrication processes and highlight future trends in their development. To appreciate the clinical requirements of bone scaffolds, a brief review of the biological process by which bone regenerates itself is presented first. This is followed by a summary and comparisons of commonly used implant techniques to highlight the advantages of TE-based approaches over traditional grafting methods. A detailed discussion on the clinical and mechanical requirements of bone scaffolds then follows. The remainder of the manuscript is dedicated to current scaffold fabrication methods, their unique capabilities and perceived shortcomings. The range of biomaterials employed in each fabrication method is summarized. Selected traditional and non-traditional fabrication methods are discussed with a highlight on their future potential from the authors' perspective. This study is motivated by the rapidly growing demand for effective scaffold fabrication processes capable of economically producing constructs with intricate and precisely controlled internal and external architectures. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The manuscript summarizes the current state of fabrication technologies and materials used for creating scaffolds in bone tissue engineering applications. A comprehensive analysis of different fabrication methods (traditional and free-form) were summarized in this review paper, with emphasis on recent developments in the field. The fabrication techniques suitable for creating scaffolds for tissue engineering was particularly targeted and their use in bone tissue engineering were articulated. Along with the fabrication techniques, we emphasized the choice of materials in these processes. Considering the limitations of each process, we highlighted the materials and the material properties critical in that particular process and provided a brief rational for the choice of the materials. The functional performance for bone tissue engineering are summarized for different fabrication processes and the choice of biomaterials. Finally, we provide a perspective on the future of the field, highlighting the knowledge gaps and promising avenues in pursuit of effective scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. This extensive review of the field will provide research community with a reference source for current approaches to scaffold preparation. We hope to encourage the researchers to generate next generation biomaterials to be used in these fabrication processes. By providing both advantages and disadvantage of each fabrication method in detail, new fabrication techniques might be devised that will overcome the limitations of the current approaches. These studies should facilitate the efforts of researchers interested in generating ideal scaffolds, and should have applications beyond the repair of bone tissue.
Peking University1, Chinese Academy of Sciences2, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital3, University of Science and Technology Beijing4, University of North Texas5, Tianjin University6, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong7, Shandong University of Science and Technology8, Xi'an Jiaotong University9, Zhengzhou University10
TL;DR: In this article, the dual criteria of biodegradability and biocompatibility are proposed for BMs, and all metallic elements in the periodic table with accessible data are screened on the basis of these criteria.
Abstract: Until now there has been no fundamental theory applicable for biodegradable metals (BMs). First, this paper optimizes the definition of BMs given in 2014. Second, the dual criteria of biodegradability and biocompatibility are proposed for BMs, and all metallic elements in the periodic table with accessible data are screened on the basis of these criteria. Regarding biodegradability, electrode potential, reactivity series, galvanic series, Pilling–Bedworth ratio, and Pourbaix diagrams are all adopted as parameters to classify the degradable and nondegradable nature of a material, especially in a physiological environment. Considering the biocompatibility at different levels, cellular biocompatibility, tissue biocompatibility, and human/clinical related biocompatibility parameters are put forward to comprehensively evaluate the biosafety of BMs. Third, for the material design of BMs, mechanical properties, chemical properties, physical properties and biological properties should be considered and balanced to guarantee that the degradation behavior of BMs match well with a tissue regeneration/repair procedure as the function of time and spatial location. Besides the selected metallic elements, some nonmetallic elements are selected as suitable alloying elements for BMs. Finally, five classification/research directions for future BMs are proposed: biodegradable pure metals, crystalline alloys, bulk metallic glasses, high entropy alloys, and metal matrix composites.
TL;DR: In this paper, the current research status regarding Mg bone implants was systematically reviewed and the relevant strategies to enhance the corrosion resistance, including purification, alloying treatment, surface coating and Mg-based metal matrix composite, were comprehensively discussed.
Abstract: Mg and its alloys have been identified as promising bone implant materials owing to their natural degradability, good biocompatibility and favorable mechanical properties. Nevertheless, the too fast degradation rate usually results in a premature disintegration of mechanical integrity and local hydrogen accumulation, which limit their clinical bone repair application. In this work, the current research status regarding Mg bone implants was systematically reviewed. The relevant strategies to enhance the corrosion resistance, including purification, alloying treatment, surface coating and Mg-based metal matrix composite, are comprehensively discussed. The fabricating techniques for Mg bone implants are also presented. Particularly, laser additive manufacturing can fabricate customized shape and complex porous structure basing on its unique additive manufacturing concept. More importantly, it can achieve rapid heating and cooling due to the characteristics of high laser energy density and good controllability, thereby regulating the microstructure and performance. Furthermore, the current challenges and future research perspectives are put forward. This work aims to offer some meaningful guidelines for researchers on the future study of Mg bone implants.