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Author

Kai Yao

Other affiliations: Nanjing University
Bio: Kai Yao is an academic researcher from Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The author has contributed to research in topics: Power factor & Electrolytic capacitor. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 14 publications receiving 1401 citations. Previous affiliations of Kai Yao include Nanjing University.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, two methods of reducing the storage capacitance in the ac/dc power supplies for light emitting diode (LED) lighting were proposed to achieve a long power suppliespsila lifetime.
Abstract: This paper proposes two methods of reducing the storage capacitance in the ac/dc power supplies for light emitting diode (LED) lighting. In doing so, film capacitors can be adopted instead of electrolytic capacitors to achieve a long power suppliespsila lifetime. The voltage ripple of the storage capacitor is intentionally increased to reduce the storage capacitance. The method of determining the storage capacitance for ensuring that the boost power factor correction converter operates normally in the whole input voltage range is also discussed. For the purpose of further reducing the storage capacitance, a method of injecting the third harmonic current into the input current flow is proposed. While ensuring that the input power factor is always higher than 0.9 to comply with regulation standards such as ENERGY STAR, the storage capacitance can be reduced to 65.6% of that with an input power factor of 1. A 60-W experimental prototype is built to verify the proposed methods.

380 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Shu Wang1, Xinbo Ruan1, Kai Yao1, Siew-Chong Tan, Yang Yang1, Zhihong Ye 
16 Dec 2011
TL;DR: In this paper, a flick-free electrolytic capacitor-less single-phase ac-dc driver for LED lighting is proposed, which consists of an electrolytic capacitive-less PFC converter and a bidirectional converter, which serves to absorb the ac component of the pulsating current of the PFC converters.
Abstract: The electrolytic capacitor is the key component that limits the operating lifetime of LED drivers. If an ac-dc LED driver with power factor correction (PFC) control is allowed to output a pulsating current for driving the LEDs, the electrolytic capacitor will no longer be required. However, this pulsating current will introduce light flicker that varies at twice the power line frequency. In this paper, a configuration of flicker-free electrolytic capacitor-less single-phase ac-dc driver for LED lighting is proposed. The configuration comprises an electrolytic capacitor-less PFC converter and a bidirectional converter, which serves to absorb the ac component of the pulsating current of the PFC converter, leaving only a dc component to drive the LEDs. The output filter capacitor of the bidirectional converter is intentionally designed to have a large voltage ripple, thus its capacitance can be greatly reduced. Consequently, film capacitors can be used instead of electrolytic capacitors, leading to the realization of a flicker-free ac-dc LED driver that has a long lifetime. The proposed solution is generally applicable to all single-phase PFC converters. A prototype with 48-V, 0.7-A output is constructed and tested. Experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the flick-free electrolytic capacitor-less ac-dc LED driver.

366 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a flyback-based electrolytic capacitor-less light-emitting diode (LED) driver is proposed, which converts the commercial ac voltage to a pulsating current with twice the line frequency driving high-brightness LEDs.
Abstract: This paper proposes a concept of electrolytic capacitor-less light-emitting diode (LED) driver, which converts the commercial ac voltage to a pulsating current with twice the line frequency driving high-brightness LEDs. As no electrolytic capacitor is used, this driver possesses the unique advantage of long lifetime to match with that of LEDs. A method of injecting the third and fifth harmonics into the input current to reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the output current is also proposed. While ensuring that the input power factor is higher than 0.9 to meet regulation standards such as ENERGY STAR, the proposed method allows the peak-to-average ratio of the output current to be reduced to 1.34 theoretically, which is beneficial for the safe operation of the LEDs. As an example, a flyback-based electrolytic capacitor-less LED driver is proposed, and its operation is analyzed. In order to inject the third and fifth harmonics into the input current, the function of the duty cycle in a half-line cycle is derived. It is then simplified to a fitting function, which can be easily implemented with the input voltage sensing. A 25 V, 0.35 A output prototype is built and tested in the laboratory, and the experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the electrolytic capacitor-less LED driver and its control method.

332 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper derives the expressions of the input current and PF of the DCM boost PFC converter, and based on that, variable-duty-cycle control is proposed so as to improve the input power factor to nearly unity in the whole input-voltage range.
Abstract: A discontinuous-current-mode (DCM) boost power factor correction (PFC) converter features zero-current turn-on for the switch, no reverse recovery in diode, and constant-frequency operation. However, the input power factor (PF) is relatively low when the duty cycle is constant in a half line cycle. This paper derives the expressions of the input current and PF of the DCM boost PFC converter, and based on that, variable-duty-cycle control is proposed so as to improve the PF to nearly unity in the whole input-voltage range. A method of fitting the duty cycle is further proposed for simplifying the circuit implementation. Other than a higher PF, the proposed variable-duty-cycle control achieves a lower output-voltage ripple and a higher efficiency over constant-duty-cycle control. The experimental results from a 120-W universal input prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

114 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the relationship between the peak-to-average ratio and the injected harmonics is discussed, and the optimum injected third and fifth harmonics to minimize the peak to average ratio are obtained, while ensuring that the input power factor is higher than 0.9 to meet the regulatory requirement such as ENERGY STAR.
Abstract: The lifetime of an ac-dc LED driver can be increased by eliminating the electrolytic capacitor. Unfortunately, it results in pulsation with twice the line frequency in the driving current. Injection of the third and fifth harmonics into the input current can reduce the peak-to-average ratio of the driving current, which is beneficial for reliable operation of the LEDs. This letter discusses the relationship between the peak-to-average ratio and the injected harmonics, and the optimum injected third and fifth harmonics to minimize the peak-to-average ratio are obtained, while ensuring that the input power factor is higher than 0.9 to meet the regulatory requirement such as the ENERGY STAR. This optimum injected current harmonics is verified by a flyback-based electrolytic capacitor-less LED driver with 25 V, 0.35 A output.

100 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a ripple power port is proposed to manage energy storage and decouple capacitor ripple from power ripple, allowing the designer to make a choice of capacitor voltage independent of other system voltages.
Abstract: Converters with a dc port and a single-phase ac port must store energy to buffer the inherent double-frequency power flow at the ac port. The minimum energy storage required to isolate the power ripple from the dc port is presented, and leads to the minimum capacitance required for converters that use capacitive energy storage. This paper presents a ripple power port to manage energy storage and decouple capacitor ripple from power ripple. A ripple power port allows the designer to make a choice of capacitor voltage independent of other system voltages. A combination of an ac link converter and a ripple power port leads to a dramatic increase in reliability: it is shown that converters with nominal ratings up to 200 W can be designed with expected mean-time-between-failure ratings on the order of 1.4 × 106 h-sufficient for hundred-year operation in long-life applications such as photovoltaic converters and LED lamps. This large increase in life is achieved with minimal extra cost.

464 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a thorough study for different power decoupling techniques in single-phase microinverters for grid-tie PV applications is presented, compared and scrutinized in scope of the size of decoupled capacitor, efficiency, and control complexity.
Abstract: The reliability of the microinverter is a very important feature that will determine the reliability of the ac-module photovoltaic (PV) system. Recently, many topologies and techniques have been proposed to improve its reliability. This paper presents a thorough study for different power decoupling techniques in single-phase microinverters for grid-tie PV applications. These power decoupling techniques are categorized into three groups in terms of the decoupling capacitor locations: 1) PV-side decoupling; 2) dc-link decoupling; and 3) ac-side decoupling. Various techniques and topologies are presented, compared, and scrutinized in scope of the size of decoupling capacitor, efficiency, and control complexity. Also, a systematic performance comparison is presented for potential power decoupling topologies and techniques.

458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yao Sun1, Yonglu Liu1, Mei Su1, Wenjing Xiong1, Jian Yang1 
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a comprehensive review of active power decoupling circuit topologies and their development laws from the view of the dual principle, switch sharing, and differential connection.
Abstract: Active power decoupling methods are developed to deal with the inherent ripple power at twice the grid frequency in single-phase systems generally by adding active switches and energy storage units. They have obtained a wide range of applications, such as photovoltaic (PV) systems, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) drivers, fuel cell (FC) power systems, and electric vehicle (EV) battery chargers, etc. This paper provides a comprehensive review of active power decoupling circuit topologies. They are categorized into two groups in terms of the structure characteristics: independent and dependent decoupling circuit topologies. The former operates independently with the original converter, and the latter, however, shares the power semiconductor devices with the original converter partially and even completely. The development laws for the active power decoupling topologies are revealed from the view of “duality principle,” “switches sharing,” and “differential connection.” In addition, the exceptions and special cases are also briefly introduced. This paper is targeted to help researchers, engineers, and designers to construct some new decoupling circuit topologies and properly select existing ones according to the specific application.

395 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Shu Wang1, Xinbo Ruan1, Kai Yao1, Siew-Chong Tan, Yang Yang1, Zhihong Ye 
16 Dec 2011
TL;DR: In this paper, a flick-free electrolytic capacitor-less single-phase ac-dc driver for LED lighting is proposed, which consists of an electrolytic capacitive-less PFC converter and a bidirectional converter, which serves to absorb the ac component of the pulsating current of the PFC converters.
Abstract: The electrolytic capacitor is the key component that limits the operating lifetime of LED drivers. If an ac-dc LED driver with power factor correction (PFC) control is allowed to output a pulsating current for driving the LEDs, the electrolytic capacitor will no longer be required. However, this pulsating current will introduce light flicker that varies at twice the power line frequency. In this paper, a configuration of flicker-free electrolytic capacitor-less single-phase ac-dc driver for LED lighting is proposed. The configuration comprises an electrolytic capacitor-less PFC converter and a bidirectional converter, which serves to absorb the ac component of the pulsating current of the PFC converter, leaving only a dc component to drive the LEDs. The output filter capacitor of the bidirectional converter is intentionally designed to have a large voltage ripple, thus its capacitance can be greatly reduced. Consequently, film capacitors can be used instead of electrolytic capacitors, leading to the realization of a flicker-free ac-dc LED driver that has a long lifetime. The proposed solution is generally applicable to all single-phase PFC converters. A prototype with 48-V, 0.7-A output is constructed and tested. Experimental results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the flick-free electrolytic capacitor-less ac-dc LED driver.

366 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To integrate the advantages of the high voltage gain of a switched-capacitor (SC) converter and excellent output regulation of a switching-mode dc-dc converter, a method of combining the two types of converters is proposed in this paper.
Abstract: In a photovoltaic (PV)- or fuel-cell-based grid-connected power system, a high step-up dc-dc converter is required to boost the low voltage of a PV or fuel cell to a relatively high bus voltage for the downstream dc-ac grid-connected inverter. To integrate the advantages of the high voltage gain of a switched-capacitor (SC) converter and excellent output regulation of a switching-mode dc-dc converter, a method of combining the two types of converters is proposed in this paper. The basic idea is that when the switch is turned on, the inductor is charged, and the capacitors are connected in series to supply the load, and when the switch is turned off, the inductor releases energy to charge multiple capacitors in parallel, whose voltages are controlled by a pulsewidth modulation technique. Thus, a high voltage gain of the dc-dc converter can be obtained with good regulation. Based on this principle, a series of new topologies are derived, and the operating principles and voltage gains of the proposed converters are analyzed. Finally, the design of the proposed converter is given, and the experiment results are provided to verify the theoretical analysis.

331 citations