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Kalaipriya Gunasekaran

Bio: Kalaipriya Gunasekaran is an academic researcher from Indira Gandhi Medical College. The author has contributed to research in topics: Medicine & Prejudice (legal term). The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 2 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A considerable proportion of NCD patients with easily detectable attributes are at risk of developing OSA, but still remain undiagnosed at a primary health care setting, according to this cross-sectional study.
Abstract: Background and Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder worldwide, which can adversely affect the cardiovascular system among non-communicable disease (NCD) patients. It is underdiagnosed-or rather not diagnosed-in primary care settings due to the costly diagnostic techniques involved. This study aimed to assess the number of study participants at risk of developing OSA and to assess and quantify the risk factors associated with this disorder. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in an NCD clinic of a rural health training center, Karikalampakkam, Puducherry of South India from August 2018 to October 2018. A Modified Berlin Questionnaire (MBQ) was used to screen the study participants at risk for OSA. Four-hundred-and-seventy-three people aged 18 years and above were included in the study, using systematic random sampling. Respondents' socio-demographic and morbidity characteristics, as well as clinical and anthropometric parameters including body weight, height, blood pressure, neck, hip and waist circumference were collected. Data was captured using Epicollect5 and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results: One-fourth (25.8%) of the respondents were at high risk of developing OSA. In terms of gender, 27.9% of the men and 23.8% of the women were at high risk for OSA. In univariate analyses, the risk of developing OSA was significantly associated with a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, weight, body mass index, neck, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a history of dyslipidemia (aOR, 95% CI = 2.34, 1.22-4.48), body mass index (aOR, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.06-1.22) and waist circumference (aOR, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.07-1.14) emerged as significant predictors of risk for OSA. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of NCD patients with easily detectable attributes are at risk of developing OSA, but still remain undiagnosed at a primary health care setting. The results obtained using MBQ in this study were comparable to studies performed using polysomnography. Dyslipidemia, body mass index and waist circumference were independent risk factors for predicting a risk of developing OSA. Prospective studies are needed to confirm whether a reduction in these risk factors could reduce the risk for OSA.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: One fourth of the adolescents in Puducherry were found to be at risk of mental health illness, so periodic screening could be done at schools, for early identification and proper treatment of mental disorders.
Abstract: Context: Adolescence is a crucial period during which biological and psychosocial changes occur in an individual. The prevalence of mental disorders among Indian adolescents was 7.3%. Early recognition and intervention will help to have favorable outcomes. Aims: To determine and compare the prevalence and risk factors associated with mental health illness among urban and rural adolescents in Puducherry. Methods and Material: An explanatory mixed-method design wherein the quantitative phase (an analytical cross-sectional study) was followed by qualitative phase (focus group discussion). Adolescents aged 13–17 years attending Government schools in urban and rural Puducherry were selected by stratified random sampling. Mental health status was screened using a validated Youth Report Measures for Children and Adolescents – SDQ and students with higher score were considered to be at risk of mental health illness. Results: Among 329 adolescent, 25.5% are found to be at risk of mental health illness. The mean total score and sub-domain scores of hyperactivity and emotional symptoms were found to be significantly higher in urban when compared to rural. Among those at risk of mental health illness, significant difference between urban and rural area was seen with respect to variables like family monthly income and parent's occupation. Behaviour change and deterioration in academic performance were the most common presentation as perceived by the teachers. Conclusions: One fourth of the adolescents were found to be at risk of mental health illness, so periodic screening could be done at schools, for early identification and proper treatment of mental disorders.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2023-Cureus
TL;DR: In this article , a mixed-method study was conducted in the Central Jail, Puducherry, where a facility-based cross-sectional study design and a qualitative component involved a focused group discussion (FGD).
Abstract: Background: Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG) aims to end the epidemic of TB by 2030. To achieve this goal, active screening should be initiated in the target populations. These target populations are those without access to proper healthcare like jail inmates. With pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) being cosmopolitan in India, passive case finding alone cannot suffice to achieve the above-mentioned goal. Thus, active case finding (ACF) becomes the need of the hour. So, we aimed to conduct a mixed methods study that has a quantitative component, i.e., to actively screen the prison inmates for PTB, and a qualitative component, i.e., to know the perceptions of jail inmates towards PTB and the stigmas associated with it. Methodology: This was a mixed-method study conducted in the Central Jail, Puducherry. The quantitative component involved a facility-based cross-sectional study design and the qualitative component involved a focused group discussion (FGD). Participants were screened for PTB and diabetes mellitus (DM) and their anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index {BMI}, waist-to-hip ratio {WHR}) was noted. Presumptive cases were identified as those with symptoms of cough for more than two weeks with or without other concomitant symptoms. They were subjected to cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test (CB-NAAT) assay. Data were entered in MS Excel 2017 and analyzed using SPSS version 16 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). For the qualitative exercise, purposive sampling with maximum variation technique was done to enroll a diverse subset of population for the FGD. Iterative analysis of the content was performed by the team to generate codes and themes. Results: Out of all the 187 inmates screened, 10.7% were symptomatic. On CB-NAAT examination of the symptomatic inmates, none turned positive. The inmates with presumptive TB were older by age and had a higher proportion of illiteracy and existing co-morbidity (p≤0.05). While random blood sugar (RBS) levels of >140 mg/dL were recorded in 19.7% of inmates, RBS levels of >200 mg/dL considered diagnostic were noted in 5.34% of inmates. A total of 2.67% of the inmates were newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. The further management of the newly diagnosed inmates was taken over by the medical supervision team of the Central Jail. From the FGD, thematic manual content analysis was performed. A total of 24 codes were generated. After merging similar codes and removing duplications, the remaining 16 codes were grouped into six broad themes. Conclusions were drawn by interpretation of these themes. Conclusion: ACF is important as it is associated with early detection and treatment. It must be done periodically. During the FGD, we came across negative ideologies and stigmas associated with PTB among jail inmates. We used the same platform to clear those ideologies and recommend frequent health education exercises even in socially ostracized communities like jail inmates.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a mixed methods study was conducted during the months of January to March 2020 among 153 study participants, where focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted along with free listing and pile sorting till data saturation.
Abstract: Background: In case of a CBRNE catastrophe, junior doctors (first responders) will be the first to respond to the CBRNE disaster, so they should be fully equipped with the knowledge and skills of managing CBRNE casualties and preventing the endangerment of lives. Objectives: To assess the awareness and preparedness of first responders in medical institutions regarding CBRNE casualties' management and to explore the perceptions of first responders towards CBRNE disaster management. Materials and Methods: The present study was a mixed methods study which was conducted during the months of January to March 2020 among 153 study participants. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted along with free listing and pile sorting till data saturation. Data entry was done in an Excel sheet and data analysis was be done using SPSS software v. 21. Results: Out of the 153 participants only 37 participants (24.1%) had ever heard about the term “CBRNE” (chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear disasters) or “hazmat” (hazardous material). At the end of FGDs, participants could answer affirmatively that they had heard the term “decontamination” of CBRNE casualties. Very few participants could ambiguously explain the meaning of the term “decontamination” in the context of CBRNE casualty. Conclusion: There is an imperative need for enhancing not only knowledge and awareness, but also proper training for first responders to utilizing simulation sessions. This is particularly important as health care professionals are the first line of defence when it comes to identifying and treating patients that have come into contact with CBRNE hazards.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a mixed-method study was conducted during the months of January to June 2019 among 43 study participants to study various modes in which transgenders experience the stigma and discrimination and to understand situations and circumstances under which they are vulnerable toward stigma.
Abstract: ABSTRACT Background: Transgender people experience widespread prejudice discrimination, violence and other harms of stigma and trans-phobia (dislike of or prejudice against trans-sexual or transgender people). To study various modes in which transgenders experience the stigma and discrimination and to understand situations and circumstances under which they are vulnerable toward stigma and discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study was a mixed-method study which was conducted during the months of January to June 2019 among 43 study participants. Focus group discussion and in-depth interview was conducted with these participants with subsequent transcription. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used for analysis. Results: Transgenders face discrimination and stigma in various setting including education, employment, healthcare, and various public setting. Difficulties in getting government identity cards (ID), facing difficulties in changing ID cards after transition, discrimination in getting bank loan, homelessness, travelling rejections were considered as major obstacles and discrimination by the study participants. Conclusion: Multilevel interventions are needed for transgender populations, including legal protections, improvement of various settings. Inclusive measures should be taken to improve their status focusing on social stigma coupled with psychological pain and economic hardship.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on the characteristics of OSA in special populations which are less frequently investigated and the contribution of seven groups of experts in the field of sleep medicine gave their contribution in the realization of noteworthy manuscripts.
Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease that may affect up to 50% of the adult population and whose incidence continues to rise, as well as its health and socio-economic burden. OSA is a well-known risk factor for motor vehicles accidents and decline in work performance and it is frequently accompanied by cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this Special Issue is to focus on the characteristics of OSA in special populations which are less frequently investigated. In this regard, seven groups of experts in the field of sleep medicine gave their contribution in the realization of noteworthy manuscripts which will support all physicians in improving their understanding of OSA with the latest knowledge about its epidemiology, pathophysiology and comorbidities in special populations, which will serve as a basis for future research.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This retrospective study evaluated changes in the pharyngeal portion of the upper airway in patients with constricted and normal airways treated with clear aligners (Invisalign, Align) and assessed the change of tongue position in the oral cavity from a lateral view.
Abstract: This retrospective study evaluated changes in the pharyngeal portion of the upper airway in patients with constricted and normal airways treated with clear aligners (Invisalign, Align). Additionally, we assessed the change of tongue position in the oral cavity from a lateral view. Evaluation was performed with specialized software (Invivo 6.0, Anatomage) on pretreatment and post-treatment pairs of cone beam computed tomography imaging (CBCT) data. The level of airway constriction, volume, cross-section minimal area and tongue profile were evaluated. Patients with malocclusion, with pair or initial and finishing CBCT and without significant weight change between the scans, treated with Invisalign clear aligners were distributed into two groups. Group A consisted of fifty-five patients with orthodontic malocclusion and constricted upper airway. Control group B consisted of thirty-one patients with orthodontic malocclusions without any airway constriction. In the group with airway constriction there was a statistically significant increase in volume during therapy (p < 0.001). The surface of the most constricted cross-section of the airway did not change significantly after treatment in any of the groups. The final tongue position was different from the initial position in 62.2% of all clear aligner treatments. The position of the smallest clearance of the airway in the pharynx was similar for both groups localized at the level of 2nd cervical vertebra.

2 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While females have a negative correlation for daytime sleepiness and a significant difference among anthropometric indices for sleep quality and daytimeSleepiness was evident, a higher percentage of body fat was found among female participants.
Abstract: Sleep is necessary for all living beings and plays a significant role in preventing health complications. Many health risks are associated with overweight and obesity. Association between sleep habits and anthropometric indices were investigated in this study. The objective of this study was to determine gender-specific associations of different anthropometric indices with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. This cross-sectional study involved 550 males and females. Anthropometric indices measured with the help of a bioelectric impedance device. The Pittsburgh sleeps quality index was used to evaluate sleep quality over a one-month period, and the Epworth sleepiness scale was used to measure the level of daytime sleepiness. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for comparative analysis, and Spearman correlation was also used to assess the relationship among all variables. A negative correlation identified between the percentage of body fat with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness and other anthropometric indices has a low positive correlation, but not significant for sleep quality and daytime sleepiness. While females have a negative correlation for daytime sleepiness and a significant difference among anthropometric indices for sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was evident. A higher percentage of body fat was found among female participants. This study has highlighted the prevalence of obesity with multiple anthropometric indices. Such studies could help evaluate the role of anthropometric indices in predicting the quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness in male and female participants.

1 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2023
TL;DR: In this article , the impact of social media usage on mental health among young adults is discussed. But, the authors focus on the mental health of young adults and do not consider the social activities common to previous generations.
Abstract: Social media usage among young adults has increased dramatically in recent years. With more time spent using social media, this chapter seeks to inform the reader of current research-based findings about the mental health of young adults as related to social media use and provide an educational discussion about the impact of social media use on mental health among young adults. Ways to promote healthy habits when using social media for recreation or professional purposes are discussed, along with questions for discussion among educators and mental health professionals. Researchers are exploring the effects of social media and its application to a variety of issues relevant to young adults. Young adults were the earliest adopters of social media and have continued to use social media at high levels. Since young adults are spending more time on social media, they are spending less time engaged in the social activities common to previous generations of young adults. The effects of these differences in social activity have been and continue to be explored in psychology, medicine, and education. Social media “influencers” have increased sway on individual activities. The use of social media by young adults has enormous potential for both positive youth development with social and professional connections, as well as concerns for mental health and focus. Key findings suggest that social media offers individuals with a communication mode for connection, sharing, and relationship building both online and offline, as well as understanding that some mental health issues are independent of social media use. Research has focused on the impact of social media use on adolescent sense of self, social media addiction, the impact of smartphones on social skills, sleep loss due to social media use, and the impact on mental health.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a cross-sectional survey of 707 female adolescents in Southern India was conducted, where the participants filled out the following set of questionnaires: socio-demographic sheet, Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and Brief sensation-seeking scale (BSSS-8).
Abstract: Objectives Gaming is a predominant leisure time activity among adolescents, and the literature suggests that unrestrained gaming behavior might lead to gaming disorder. ICD-11 and DSM-5 have recognized gaming disorder as a psychiatric condition and grouped it under the behavioral addiction category. Research on gaming behavior and addiction is largely based on data from the male population, and problematic gaming has largely been understood from the male perspective. In this study, we are attempting to bridge the existing lacuna in the literature by exploring gaming behavior, gaming disorder, and its related psychopathological characteristics among female adolescents in India. Methods The study was conducted on a sample of 707 female adolescent participants who were contacted through schools and academic institutes in a city in Southern India. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design, and data were administered using the mixed modality of online and offline data collection. The participants filled out the following set of questionnaires: socio-demographic sheet, Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short-Form (IGDS9-SF), Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and Brief sensation-seeking scale (BSSS-8). The data gathered from the participants were then statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 26. Results The descriptive statistics revealed that 0.8% of the sample (i.e., five participants out of 707) obtained scores meeting gaming addiction criteria. Correlation analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between all the psychological variables with total IGD scale scores (p < 0.05). Total SDQ, total BSSS-8, and domain scores of SDQ, such as emotional symptoms, conduct, hyperactivity, and peer problems, were positively correlated, whereas total Rosenberg scores and domain scores of prosocial behaviors of SDQ were negatively correlated. The Mann–Whitney U-test was employed to compare “with gaming disorder” and “without gaming disorder” categories of female participants. Comparing these two groups revealed significant differences in emotional symptoms, conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, peer problem, and self-esteem scale scores. Furthermore, quantile regression was computed, showing that conduct, peer problem, and self-esteem displayed trend-level prediction for gaming disorder. Conclusion Female adolescents prone to gaming addiction can be identified through psychopathological characteristics of conduct, peer problem, and low self-esteem. This understanding can be useful in developing a theoretical model focusing on early screening and preventive strategies for at-risk female adolescents.