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Kamaruzzaman Sopian

Bio: Kamaruzzaman Sopian is an academic researcher from National University of Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Photovoltaic system & Solar energy. The author has an hindex of 84, co-authored 989 publication(s) receiving 25293 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Kamaruzzaman Sopian include Universiti Tenaga Nasional & Universiti Putra Malaysia.
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Abstract: In recent years, biodiesel has attracted significant attention from researchers, governments, and industries as a renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic fuel. However, several feedstocks have been proven impractical or infeasible because of their extremely high cost due to their usage primarily as food resources. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is considered the most promising biodiesel feedstock despite its drawbacks, such as its high free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the pre-treatment and the usage of WCO for the production of biodiesel using several methods, different types of reactors, and various types and amounts of alcohol and catalysts. The most common process in the production of biodiesel is transesterification, and using a methanol–ethanol mixture will combine the advantages of both alcohols in biodiesel production. In addition, this paper highlights the purification and analysis of the produced biodiesel, operating parameters that highly affect the biodiesel yield, and several economic studies. This review suggests that WCO is a promising feedstock in biodiesel production.

403 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R&D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned.

313 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Drying for agricultural and marine products are one of the most attractive and cost-effective application of solar energy. Numerous types of solar dryers have been designed and developed in various parts of the world, yielding varying degrees of technical performance. Basically, there are four types of solar dryers; (1) direct solar dryers, (2) indirect solar dryers, (3) mixed-mode dryers and (4) hybrid solar dryers. This paper is a review of these types of solar dryers with aspect to the product being dried, technical and economical aspects. The technical directions in the development of solar-assisted drying systems for agricultural produce are compact collector design, high efficiency, integrated storage, and long-life drying system. Air-based solar collectors are not the only available systems. Water-based collectors can also be used whereby water to air heat exchanger can be used. The hot air for drying of agricultural produce can be forced to flow in the water to air heat exchanger. The hot water tank acts as heat storage of the solar drying system.

297 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Apr 2006-Renewable Energy
Abstract: Fuel cell system is an advanced power system for the future that is sustainable, clean and environmental friendly. The importance of fuel cell as the future power system is discussed in the light of future fossil fuel depletion, impending international law on green house gases control and the national renewable energy policy. The modern development of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) for the last 20 years is then briefly reviewed and the current status of international and national research and development of this type of are established. The review also discuss the remaining research and development issues that still need to be resolved before these fuel cells are available for commercial application. The main thrust in PEMFC research and development is to lower the cost of the fuel cell by reduction in membrane and electrocatalyst costs. Although Europe, USA, Canada and Japan are leading fuel cell research and development as commercialization, it is not too late for Malaysia to master this technology and to apply it to niche markets in the future.

287 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Energy conservation in building arena is essential issue for achieving sustainable environment. However, buildings experienced significant amount of heat gain or loss through window and this will affect the thermal comfort of buildings׳ occupants. Building without window is able to save energy, but it is not recommended due to the benefits of natural light on visual comfort and the biological effect of natural light on humans. Hence, window design plays important role in building architect. One of the essential parts of window is the glazing. Selecting a window glazing is complicated when energy saving and daylighting aspects of a building are considered concurrently. Optimization techniques offer a balance solution for the contradictions in selecting a window glazing of energy-efficient building. This paper intended to reveal the impacts of window glazing on the energy and daylighting performances of building through the previous researches. Then, the optimization techniques used by various researchers in choosing a glazing are highlighted. The emerging glazing technologies were discussed as well.

279 citations

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08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

30,199 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

12,326 citations

01 Jan 2011-

2,062 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 1971-Nature
Abstract: Interpretation of X-ray Powder Diffraction Patterns . By H. Lipson and H. Steeple. Pp. viii + 335 + 3 plates. (Mac-millan: London; St Martins Press: New York, May 1970.) £4.

1,782 citations

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Author's H-index: 84

No. of papers from the Author in previous years

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews

66 papers, 6.9K citations

Renewable Energy

33 papers, 2.5K citations

Solar Energy

31 papers, 1K citations

International Journal of Photoenergy

20 papers, 640 citations

Energy Conversion and Management

19 papers, 2.1K citations