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Karin J. Barnes

Bio: Karin J. Barnes is an academic researcher from University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. The author has contributed to research in topics: Occupational therapy & Cerebral palsy. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 13 publications receiving 455 citations.

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TL;DR: A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives, indicating that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.
Abstract: Objective A descriptive, correlational study using a survey instrument and record review was designed to describe collaboration practices between teachers and occupational therapists in public schools and to explore relationships of these practices to individual education plan (IEP) objectives and teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contributions to student skill development. Method Forty teachers of students who receive occupational therapy comprised the sample. Descriptive statistics and Spearman rank order correlations were used to describe the practices and to determine associations among the variables. Results and conclusions The findings indicated that teachers and occupational therapists were using collaborative team practices, such as jointly developing goals and objectives, collaboration within the classrooms, jointly monitoring interventions, and jointly reviewing student progress. However, scheduling team meetings was difficult. The majority of respondents stated that occupational therapy contributed to student skill development, and as collaboration practices increased, the teachers' perceptions of occupational therapy contribution to student skill development increased. A significant negative correlation was found between the percentage of IEP objectives met variable and three collaborative variables--team meetings, reviewing progress, and develop goals and objectives. This finding indicated that as the frequency of these team processes increased, fewer objectives were met.

104 citations

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TL;DR: Perceived lack of knowledge and confusion about occupational therapy's role may lead to underutilization of occupational therapy for addressing the complex needs of children with emotional disturbances.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the perceived appropriateness, extent, and types of services provided by occupational therapists to children with emotional disturbances in public schools. A nationally mailed survey was conducted of randomly selected school occupational therapists derived from the American Occupational Therapy Association School System Special Interest Section list. The sampling frame was 982 with a response rate of 48% (n = 476). Eighty-seven percent of all respondents were supportive of school occupational therapy for students with emotional disturbances, although these students made up only a small proportion of their caseload. The therapists indicated that a variety of intervention approaches were used with most targeting educational areas, especially handwriting. The most commonly reported intervention was sensory integration. Many respondents perceived that they could not provide effective interventions because they were not appropriately trained. Perceived lack of knowledge and confusion about occupational therapy's role may lead to underutilization of occupational therapy for addressing the complex needs of children with emotional disturbances. Further research and discussion are needed in the profession to arrive at consensus regarding what approaches are most appropriate and effective in schools.

56 citations

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TL;DR: Preliminary results indicate programs that target self-regulation skills may be useful in helping to improve self- regulation of children with emotional disturbance.
Abstract: Children with emotional disturbance frequently have difficulty regulating their classroom behaviors. Many have co-occurrence of other disabilities, such as sensory processing problems, which compound difficulties in school participation. This exploratory project evaluated the 8-week-long use of the Alert Program within the classroom setting for seven children with emotional disturbance. Five children with emotional disturbance served as a control group. Self-regulation, behavioral adjustments, and sensory processing skills as reported by the children and teachers were evaluated. Changes from pretest to posttest indicated that children who received the Alert Program demonstrated a small improvement on all measures while performance of the control group remained relatively constant or decreased. These preliminary results indicate programs that target self-regulation skills may be useful in helping to improve self-regulation of children with emotional disturbance.

54 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The project outcomes suggest that collaborative participation can give students and their community partners broader frameworks from which to view enablement and a sense of mutual responsibility.
Abstract: This paper describes a reciprocal service-learning project between Master of Occupational Therapy (MOT) students and a Head Start program on the Texas-Mexico border. Education of occupational therapy students at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio includes local community learning experiences. However, this project challenged the students and faculty to step outside of and beyond their boundaries to address the unique needs of children in Del Rio, Texas. In a reciprocal service-learning situation, students provided developmental screenings, presentations, and classroom suggestions to the Head Start staff. In turn, the Head Start staff reciprocated by providing presentations and classroom cultural inclusion experiences to the students. The project outcomes suggest that collaborative participation can give students and their community partners broader frameworks from which to view enablement and a sense of mutual responsibility. From this starting point students can be encouraged to explore issues of social inclusion and occupational justice.

17 citations


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TL;DR: The occupational therapist's knowledge of the developmental process, use of activities, skills with activity analysis and adaptation, and concern for the quality of life are supported throughout the text.
Abstract: As stated by the editors, this book is intended as a basic pediatric textbook. Well organized and fu 11 of clinical examples, it effectively covers many important aspects of clinical practice in pediatrics, providing an introduction to the roles and functions of the occupational therapist in pediatric practice. Several chapters deserve special mention. The chapter \"01' in Pediatrics\" clearly describes the human development through occupation as a generic model for pediatric practice; the chapters on play/recreation and sensory integration offer valuable, clearly written background information with applied clinical examples One criterion for evaluating a textbook is the amount of new information presented (i.e., information not included in other standard textbooks such as Willard & Spackman's Occupational Therapy Unfortunately, the editors have included several sections that review development, health care delivery, general medical information and evaluations without expanding on or adding to the available information. Some sections are a mere summary of the literature, charts, and lists; they do not present the authors' clinical perspectives. Fortunately, other chapters include up dated information and reflect the insights of the various authors. Included are many charts, lists, evaluation forms, and clinical examples that entry level therapists (as well as students) will find helpful Chapters are well referenced. The discussion of treatment related to specific diagnostic conditions includes clearly described appropriate intervention Case studies support the authors' views and clarify specific treatment approaches. The occupational therapist's knowledge of the developmental process, use of activities, skills with activity analysis and adaptation, and concern for the quality of life are supported throughout the text. The editors have accomplished their goal of proViding a comprehensive text for basic professional education in occupational therapy for children thereby fulfilling an important need in our profession. Jim Hinojosa

241 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Single subject designs are ideally suited for research in the rehabilitation practice environment and can help establish the efficacy of rehabilitation practice and contribute to rehabilitation science.
Abstract: Purpose : The objective of this article is to offer an overview of single subject designs and provide clinicians with information regarding the components of single subject designs and how they can be used in clinical and other rehabilitation environments. Method/Result : Three basic designs in single subject research are presented, with corresponding examples illustrating each design. A review of visual and statistical analysis techniques commonly used in single subject designs is provided, and the advantages and limitations of each are noted. Conclusion : Single subject designs are ideally suited for research in the rehabilitation practice environment. If properly applied, these designs can help establish the efficacy of rehabilitation practice and contribute to rehabilitation science.

219 citations

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TL;DR: A set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, are presented, to foster a critical review of published single‐subject research articles and recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single‐ subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews.
Abstract: The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

202 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A 4-week individualized VR training program appeared to improve the quality of reaching in children with CP, especially in childrenwith normal cognition and good cooperation.
Abstract: Background and Purpose: Virtual reality (VR) creates an exercise environment in which the intensity of practice and positive feedback can be systematically manipulated in various contexts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the training effects of a VR intervention on reaching behaviors in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants: Four children with spastic CP were recruited. Method: A single-subject design (A-B with follow-up) was used. All children were evaluated with 3 baseline, 4 intervention, and 2 follow-up measures. A 4-week individualized VR training program (2 hours per week) with 2 VR systems was applied to all children. The outcome measures included 4 kinematic parameters (movement time, path length, peak velocity, and number of movement units) for mail-delivery activities in 3 directions (neutral, outward, and inward) and the Fine Motor Domain of the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales–Second Edition (PDMS-2). Visual inspection and the 2-standard-deviation–band method were used to compare the outcome measures. Results: Three children who had normal cognition showed improvements in some aspects of reaching kinematics, and 2 children’s change scores on the PDMS-2 reached the minimal detectable change during the intervention. The improvements in kinematics were partially maintained during follow-up. Discussion and Conclusion: A 4-week individualized VR training program appeared to improve the quality of reaching in children with CP, especially in children with normal cognition and good cooperation. The training effects were retained in some children after the intervention.

196 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The procedures are presented and the argument made that goal attainment scaling is a viable method by which one can document therapeutic change and demonstrate clinical accountability.
Abstract: The demand for clinical accountability and the documentation of therapeutic effectiveness continues to increase in health-related settings. Therapists are attempting to address this increasing demand by adapting methods based on traditional experimental models of research to evaluate their clinical practice. Experimental and quasi-experimental designs, however, are often limited usefulness in clinical environments for a variety of practical and ethical reasons. This paper presents a method of evaluating the effectiveness of a therapeutic intervention called goal attainment scaling, which involves goal setting procedures and assessment techniques that are practice-based and practitioner-oriented. The procedures are presented and the argument made that goal attainment scaling is a viable method by which one can document therapeutic change and demonstrate clinical accountability.

193 citations