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Author

Karl F. Böhringer

Bio: Karl F. Böhringer is an academic researcher from University of Washington. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ratchet & Actuator. The author has an hindex of 36, co-authored 184 publications receiving 4936 citations. Previous affiliations of Karl F. Böhringer include Cornell University & University of Tokyo.
Topics: Ratchet, Actuator, Optics, Brownian motor, Bimorph


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a microfluidic pump that uses magnetic actuation to push fluid through a microchannel is described, which relies on the use of magnetically-actuated plugs of ferrofluid, a suspension of nanosize ferromagnetic particles.
Abstract: A microfluidic pump is described that uses magnetic actuation to push fluid through a microchannel. Operation relies on the use of magnetically-actuated plugs of ferrofluid, a suspension of nanosize ferromagnetic particles. The ferrofluid contacts but is immiscible with the pumped fluid. The prototype circular design demonstrates continuous pumping by regenerating a translating ferrofluidic plug at the conclusion of each pumping cycle. The flow rate can be controlled by adjusting device dimensions or the velocity of an external permanent magnet that directs the motion of the ferrofluid. The ferrofluidic plugs also serve as valves; if the magnetic actuator is stopped, pressure can be maintained with no power consumption. Flow can also be reversed by switching the direction of actuation. The maximum flow rate achieved with minimal backpressure was 45.8 /spl mu/l/min. The maximum pressure head achieved was 135 mm water (1.2 kPa).

332 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are reviewed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed.
Abstract: The design and fabrication techniques for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices are progressing rapidly. However, due to material and process flow incompatibilities in the fabrication of sensors, actuators and electronic circuitry, a final packaging step is often necessary to integrate all components of a heterogeneous microsystem on a common substrate. Robotic pick-and-place, although accurate and reliable at larger scales, is a serial process that downscales unfavorably due to stiction problems, fragility and sheer number of components. Self-assembly, on the other hand, is parallel and can be used for device sizes ranging from millimeters to nanometers. In this review, the state-of-the-art in methods and applications for self-assembly is reviewed. Methods for assembling three-dimensional (3D) MEMS structures out of two-dimensional (2D) ones are described. The use of capillary forces for folding 2D plates into 3D structures, as well as assembling parts onto a common substrate or aggregating parts to each other into 2D or 3D structures, is discussed. Shape matching and guided assembly by magnetic forces and electric fields are also reviewed. Finally, colloidal self-assembly and DNA-based self-assembly, mainly used at the nanoscale, are surveyed, and aspects of theoretical modeling of stochastic assembly processes are discussed.

269 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
09 Jun 2006-Langmuir
TL;DR: This work introduces the solid-liquid contact area fraction as a new control variable in any scheme of manipulating droplets, presenting theory, fabricated structures, and experimental results that validate the approach.
Abstract: Systematic variation of microscale structures has been employed to create a rough superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle gradient. Droplets are propelled down these gradients, overcoming contact angle hysteresis using energy supplied by mechanical vibration. The rough hydrophobic surfaces have been designed to maintain air traps beneath the droplet by stabilizing its Fakir state. Dimensions and spacing of the microfabricated pillars in silicon control the solid-liquid contact area and are varied to create a gradient in the apparent contact angle. This work introduces the solid-liquid contact area fraction as a new control variable in any scheme of manipulating droplets, presenting theory, fabricated structures, and experimental results that validate the approach.

246 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a technique for assembly of multiple batches of micro components onto a single substrate is described, where the substrate is prepared with hydrophobic alkanethiol-coated gold binding sites.
Abstract: A technique is described for assembly of multiple batches of micro components onto a single substrate. The substrate is prepared with hydrophobic alkanethiol-coated gold binding sites. To perform assembly, a hydrocarbon oil, which is applied to the substrate, wets exclusively the hydrophobic binding sites in water. Micro components are then added to the water, and assembled on the oil-wetted binding sites. Moreover, assembly can be controlled to take place on desired binding sites by using an electrochemical method to deactivate specific substrate binding sites. By repeatedly applying this technique, different batches of micro components can be sequentially assembled to a single substrate. As a post assembly procedure, electroplating is incorporated into the technique to establish electrical connections for assembled components. Important issues presented are: substrate fabrication techniques, electrochemical modulation by using a suitable alkanethiol (dodecanethiol), electroplating of tin and lead alloy and binding site design simulations. Finally, we demonstrate a two-batch assembly of silicon square parts, and establishing electrical connectivity for assembled surface-mount light emitting diodes (LEDs) by electroplating.

195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic review of wearable textile electrodes in physiological signal monitoring is presented, with discussions on the manufacturing of conductive textiles, metrics to assess their performance as electrodes, and an investigation of their application in the acquisition of critical biopotential signals for routine monitoring, assessment, and exploitation of cardiac (electrocardiography, ECG), neural(electroencephalography, EEG), muscular (electromyography, EMG), and ocular (electroculography, EOG) functions.
Abstract: Wearable electronics is a rapidly growing field that recently started to introduce successful commercial products into the consumer electronics market. Employment of biopotential signals in wearable systems as either biofeedbacks or control commands are expected to revolutionize many technologies including point of care health monitoring systems, rehabilitation devices, human–computer/machine interfaces (HCI/HMIs), and brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). Since electrodes are regarded as a decisive part of such products, they have been studied for almost a decade now, resulting in the emergence of textile electrodes. This study presents a systematic review of wearable textile electrodes in physiological signal monitoring, with discussions on the manufacturing of conductive textiles, metrics to assess their performance as electrodes, and an investigation of their application in the acquisition of critical biopotential signals for routine monitoring, assessment, and exploitation of cardiac (electrocardiography, ECG), neural (electroencephalography, EEG), muscular (electromyography, EMG), and ocular (electrooculography, EOG) functions.

174 citations


Cited by
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28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.
Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1(PfPMP1)与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用,在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员,通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jun 1986-JAMA
TL;DR: The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or her own research.
Abstract: I have developed "tennis elbow" from lugging this book around the past four weeks, but it is worth the pain, the effort, and the aspirin. It is also worth the (relatively speaking) bargain price. Including appendixes, this book contains 894 pages of text. The entire panorama of the neural sciences is surveyed and examined, and it is comprehensive in its scope, from genomes to social behaviors. The editors explicitly state that the book is designed as "an introductory text for students of biology, behavior, and medicine," but it is hard to imagine any audience, interested in any fragment of neuroscience at any level of sophistication, that would not enjoy this book. The editors have done a masterful job of weaving together the biologic, the behavioral, and the clinical sciences into a single tapestry in which everyone from the molecular biologist to the practicing psychiatrist can find and appreciate his or

7,563 citations

01 May 2005

2,648 citations

01 Dec 1991
TL;DR: In this article, self-assembly is defined as the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by noncovalent bonds.
Abstract: Molecular self-assembly is the spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates joined by noncovalent bonds. Molecular self-assembly is ubiquitous in biological systems and underlies the formation of a wide variety of complex biological structures. Understanding self-assembly and the associated noncovalent interactions that connect complementary interacting molecular surfaces in biological aggregates is a central concern in structural biochemistry. Self-assembly is also emerging as a new strategy in chemical synthesis, with the potential of generating nonbiological structures with dimensions of 1 to 10(2) nanometers (with molecular weights of 10(4) to 10(10) daltons). Structures in the upper part of this range of sizes are presently inaccessible through chemical synthesis, and the ability to prepare them would open a route to structures comparable in size (and perhaps complementary in function) to those that can be prepared by microlithography and other techniques of microfabrication.

2,591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of the book.http://www.reviewreviews.com/reviews/book-reviews-of-the-book
Abstract: Review

2,157 citations