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Author

Karl-Josef Kramer

Bio: Karl-Josef Kramer is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Solar cell & Wafer. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 40 publications receiving 600 citations.

Papers
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Patent
09 Dec 2010
TL;DR: The back contact back junction solar cell as discussed by the authors comprises a substrate having a light capturing frontside surface with a passivation layer, a doped base region, and an doped backside emitter region with a polarity opposite the doped ground region.
Abstract: Back contact back junction solar cell and methods for manufacturing are provided. The back contact back junction solar cell comprises a substrate having a light capturing frontside surface with a passivation layer, a doped base region, and a doped backside emitter region with a polarity opposite the doped base region. A backside passivation layer and patterned reflective layer on the emitter form a light trapping backside mirror. An interdigitated metallization pattern is positioned on the backside of the solar cell and a permanent reinforcement provides support to the cell.

77 citations

Patent
05 Aug 2011
TL;DR: In this paper, a backplane for back contact solar cells that provides for solar cell substrate reinforcement and electrical interconnects is described, which comprises depositing an inter-digitated pattern of base electrodes and emitter electrodes on a backside surface of a semiconductor substrate, forming electrically conductive emitter plugs and base plugs on the inter-determined pattern, and attaching a second backplane having a second inter-decomposition pattern of EB electrodes and EB electrodes at the conductive EB and EB plugs.
Abstract: Fabrication methods and structures relating to backplanes for back contact solar cells that provide for solar cell substrate reinforcement and electrical interconnects are described. The method comprises depositing an interdigitated pattern of base electrodes and emitter electrodes on a backside surface of a semiconductor substrate, forming electrically conductive emitter plugs and base plugs on the interdigitated pattern, and attaching a backplane having a second interdigitated pattern of base electrodes and emitter electrodes at the conductive emitter and base plugs to form electrical interconnects.

63 citations

Patent
30 Dec 2012
TL;DR: In this article, the fabrication methods and structures relating to multi-level metallization for solar cells as well as fabrication methods for forming thin film back contact solar cells are provided.
Abstract: Fabrication methods and structures relating to multi-level metallization for solar cells as well as fabrication methods and structures for forming thin film back contact solar cells are provided.

48 citations

Patent
24 Apr 2013
TL;DR: In this article, fabrication methods and structures relating to multi-level metallization for solar cells as well as fabrication method and structures for forming back contact solar cells are provided; however, they do not provide a detailed discussion of the fabrication process.
Abstract: Fabrication methods and structures relating to multi-level metallization for solar cells as well as fabrication methods and structures for forming back contact solar cells are provided.

48 citations

Patent
02 Apr 2013
TL;DR: In this paper, fabrication methods and structures relating to multi-level metallization for solar cells as well as fabrication method and structures for forming back contact solar cells are provided; however, they do not provide a detailed discussion of the fabrication process.
Abstract: Fabrication methods and structures relating to multi-level metallization for solar cells as well as fabrication methods and structures for forming back contact solar cells are provided.

45 citations


Cited by
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Patent
19 Dec 2014
TL;DR: A high efficiency configuration for a solar cell module comprises solar cells arranged in a shingled manner to form super cells, which may be arranged to efficiently use the area of the solar module, reduce series resistance, and increase module efficiency as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A high efficiency configuration for a solar cell module comprises solar cells arranged in a shingled manner to form super cells, which may be arranged to efficiently use the area of the solar module, reduce series resistance, and increase module efficiency.

164 citations

Patent
17 Sep 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, photosensitive devices and associated methods are provided, for example, a photosensitive imager device can include a semiconductor substrate having multiple doped regions forming at least one junction, a textured region coupled to the semiconductor substrategies and positioned to interact with electromagnetic radiation, and an electrical transfer element coupled to an electrical substrate and operable to transfer an electrical signal from the at least 1 junction.
Abstract: Photosensitive devices and associated methods are provided. In one aspect, for example, a photosensitive imager device can include a semiconductor substrate having multiple doped regions forming at least one junction, a textured region coupled to the semiconductor substrate and positioned to interact with electromagnetic radiation, and an electrical transfer element coupled to the semiconductor substrate and operable to transfer an electrical signal from the at least one junction. In one aspect, the textured region is operable to facilitate generation of an electrical signal from the detection of infrared electromagnetic radiation. In another aspect, interacting with electromagnetic radiation further includes increasing the semiconductor substrate's effective absorption wavelength as compared to a semiconductor substrate lacking a textured region.

113 citations

Patent
04 Feb 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, a solar cell and a method for manufacturing the same is described, which includes a substrate of a first conductive type, an anti-reflection layer that is positioned on the substrate and is formed of a transparent conductive oxide material.
Abstract: A solar cell and a method for manufacturing the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes a substrate of a first conductive type, an anti-reflection layer that is positioned on the substrate and is formed of a transparent conductive oxide material, a plurality of emitter layers on the substrate, the plurality of emitter layers being of a second conductive type opposite the first conductive type, a plurality of first electrodes on the plurality of emitter layers, and a plurality of second electrodes that are electrically connected to the substrate and are positioned to be spaced apart from the plurality of first electrodes. The first electrodes and the second electrodes are positioned on the same surface of the substrate.

112 citations

Patent
04 Feb 2009
TL;DR: In this article, a silicon photodetector with a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1 5 atom percent was presented.
Abstract: In one aspect, the present invention provides a silicon photodetector having a surface layer that is doped with sulfur inclusions with an average concentration in a range of about 0.5 atom percent to about 1.5 atom percent. The surface layer forms a diode junction with an underlying portion of the substrate. A plurality of electrical contacts allow application of a reverse bias voltage to the junction in order to facilitate generation of an electrical signal, e.g., a photocurrent, in response to irradiation of the surface layer. The photodetector exhibits a responsivity greater than about 1 A/W for incident wavelengths in a range of about 250 nm to about 1050 nm, and a responsivity greater than about 0.1 A/W for longer wavelengths, e.g., up to about 3.5 microns.

102 citations

Patent
07 Sep 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, a solar cell with a substrate of a first conductive type having at least one via hole and an emitter layer only on at least a portion of the via hole is described.
Abstract: A solar cell and a method of manufacturing the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes a substrate of a first conductive type having at least one via hole; an emitter layer only on at least a portion of the via hole and at least one selected from a group consisting of an incident surface and side surfaces of the substrate, the emitter layer having a second conductive type opposite the first conductive type; at least one first electrode on the incident surface, the first electrode being electrically connected to the emitter layer; a second electrode connected to an opposite surface to the incident surface; and at least one first electrode current collector on the opposite surface, the at least one first electrode current collector being insulated from the second electrode and being electrically connected to the at least one first electrode through the via hole.

91 citations