Other affiliations: University of Oulu
Bio: Katja Karppinen is an academic researcher from University of Tromsø. The author has contributed to research in topics: Bilberry & Vaccinium myrtillus. The author has an hindex of 15, co-authored 37 publications receiving 918 citations. Previous affiliations of Katja Karppinen include University of Oulu.
TL;DR: An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided and R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths.
Abstract: Light is one of the most important environmental factors affecting flavonoid biosynthesis in plants. The absolute dependency of light to the plant development has driven evolvement of sophisticated mechanisms to sense and transduce multiple aspects of the light signal. Light effects can be categorized in photoperiod (duration), intensity (quantity), direction and quality (wavelength) including UV-light. Recently, new information has been achieved on the regulation of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis in fruits, in which flavonoids have a major contribution on quality. This review focuses on the effects of the different light conditions on the control of flavonoid biosynthesis in fruit producing plants. An overview of the currently known mechanisms of the light-controlled flavonoid accumulation is provided. R2R3 MYB transcription factors are known to regulate by differential expression the biosynthesis of distinct flavonoids in response to specific light wavelengths. Despite recent advances, many gaps remain to be understood in the mechanisms of the transduction pathway of light-controlled flavonoid biosynthesis. A better knowledge on these regulatory mechanisms is likely to be useful for breeding programs aiming to modify fruit flavonoid pattern.
TL;DR: This review focuses on the current knowledge of the cuticular wax biosynthesis during fleshy fruits development, and on the effect of environmental factors in regulation of the biosynthesis.
Abstract: The aerial parts of land plants are covered by a hydrophobic layer called cuticle that limits non-stomatal water loss and provides protection against external biotic and abiotic stresses. The cuticle is composed of polymer cutin and wax comprising a mixture of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives, while also bioactive secondary metabolites such as triterpenoids are present. Fleshy fruits are also covered by the cuticle, which has an important protective role during the fruit development and ripening. Research related to the biosynthesis and composition of cuticles on vegetative plant parts has largely promoted the research on cuticular waxes in fruits. The chemical composition of the cuticular wax varies greatly between fruit species and is modified by developmental and environmental cues affecting the protective properties of the wax. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the cuticular wax biosynthesis during fleshy fruits development, and on the effect of environmental factors in regulation of the biosynthesis. Bioactive properties of fruit cuticular waxes are also briefly discussed, as well as the potential for recycling of industrial fruit residues as a valuable raw material for natural wax to be used in food, cosmetics and medicine.
TL;DR: The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype × environment (G×E) interaction are discussed.
Abstract: Secondary metabolites have important defense and signaling roles, and they contribute to the overall quality of developing and ripening fruits. Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries and other Vaccinium berries are fleshy berry fruits recognized for the high levels of bioactive compounds, especially anthocyanin pigments. Besides anthocyanins and other products of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways, these berries also contain other metabolites of interest, such as carotenoid derivatives, vitamins and flavor compounds. Recently, new information has been achieved on the mechanisms related with developmental, environmental and genetic factors involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism in Vaccinium fruits. Especially light conditions and temperature are demonstrated to have a prominent role on the composition of phenolic compounds. The present review focuses on the studies on mechanisms associated with the regulation of key secondary metabolites, mainly phenolic compounds, in Vaccinium berries. The advances in the research concerning biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in Vaccinium species, including specific studies with mutant genotypes in addition to controlled and field experiments on the genotype x environment (GxE) interaction, are discussed. The recently published Vaccinium transcriptome and genome databases provide new tools for the studies on the metabolic routes.
TL;DR: The involvement of branched-chain amino acids in the biosynthesis of hyperforin and adhyperforin was demonstrated in H. perforatum shoot cultures.
TL;DR: HpPKS2 may have a role in the biosynthesis of hypericins in H. perforatum but some additional factors are possibly required for the production of emodin anthrone in vivo.
Abstract: Hypericins are biologically active constituents of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort). It is likely that emodin anthrone, an anthraquinone precursor of hypericins, is biosynthesized via the polyketide pathway by type III polyketide synthase (PKS). A PKS from H. perforatum, HpPKS2, was investigated for its possible involvement in the biosynthesis of hypericins. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that HpPKS2 groups with functionally divergent non-chalcone-producing plant-specific type III PKSs, but it is not particularly closely related to any of the currently known type III PKSs. A recombinant HpPKS2 expressed in Escherichia coli resulted in an enzyme of approximately 43 kDa. The purified enzyme catalysed the condensation of acetyl-CoA with two to seven malonyl-CoA to yield tri- to octaketide products, including octaketides SEK4 and SEK4b, as well as heptaketide aloesone. Although HpPKS2 was found to have octaketide synthase activity, production of emodin anthrone, a supposed octaketide precursor of hypericins, was not detected. The enzyme also accepted isobutyryl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA and hexanoyl-CoA as starter substrates producing a variety of tri- to heptaketide products. In situ RNA hybridization localized the HpPKS2 transcripts in H. perforatum leaf margins, flower petals and stamens, specifically in multicellular dark glands accumulating hypericins. Based on our results, HpPKS2 may have a role in the biosynthesis of hypericins in H. perforatum but some additional factors are possibly required for the production of emodin anthrone in vivo.
TL;DR: This review highlights recently unveiled biosynthetic mechanisms to generate highly diverse and complex molecules that lead to the large structural diversity of polyketides.
Abstract: Molecular Lego: Polyketides represent a highly diverse group of natural products with structurally intriguing carbon skeletons (see picture) which are assembled from simple acyl building blocks. A combination of chemical, biochemical, and genetics studies have provided exciting new insights into the programming of polyketide assembly and the sophisticated enzymatic machineries involved. This review highlights recent developments in the field.Polyketides constitute one of the major classes of natural products. Many of these compounds or derivatives thereof have become important therapeutics for clinical use; in contrast, various polyketides are infamous food-spoiling toxins or virulence factors. What is particularly remarkable about this heterogeneous group of compounds comprising of polyethers, polyenes, polyphenols, macrolides, and enediynes is that they are mainly derived from one of the simplest building blocks available in nature: acetic acid. Investigations at the chemical, genetic, and biochemical levels have shed light on the biosynthetic programs that lead to the large structural diversity of polyketides .This review highlights recently unveiled biosynthetic mechanisms to generate highly diverse and complex molecules.
TL;DR: A simplified model for the different regulatory networks involved with anthocyanin production in fruit is proposed and shows clear links between the developmental regulatory network and the specific regulators of anthcyanin biosynthesis during fruit ripening.
TL;DR: This documentary review will outline a general picture of environmental factors responsible for fluctuation in plant SMs, provide a practical way to obtain consistent quality and high quantity of bioactive compounds in vegetation, and present some suggestions for future research and development.
Abstract: Plant secondary metabolites (SMs) are not only a useful array of natural products but also an important part of plant defense system against pathogenic attacks and environmental stresses. With remarkable biological activities, plant SMs are increasingly used as medicine ingredients and food additives for therapeutic, aromatic and culinary purposes. Various genetic, ontogenic, morphogenetic and environmental factors can influence the biosynthesis and accumulation of SMs. According to the literature reports, for example, SMs accumulation is strongly dependent on a variety of environmental factors such as light, temperature, soil water, soil fertility and salinity, and for most plants, a change in an individual factor may alter the content of SMs even if other factors remain constant. Here, we review with emphasis how each of single factors to affect the accumulation of plant secondary metabolites, and conduct a comparative analysis of relevant natural products in the stressed and unstressed plants. Expectantly, this documentary review will outline a general picture of environmental factors responsible for fluctuation in plant SMs, provide a practical way to obtain consistent quality and high quantity of bioactive compounds in vegetation, and present some suggestions for future research and development.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used gene specific primers to show that the three activators of apple anthocyanin (myb10/myb1/myBA) are likely alleles of each other.
Abstract: Background The control of plant anthocyanin accumulation is via transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding the biosynthetic enzymes. A key activator appears to be an R2R3 MYB transcription factor. In apple fruit, skin anthocyanin levels are controlled by a gene called MYBA or MYB1, while the gene determining fruit flesh and foliage anthocyanin has been termed MYB10. In order to further understand tissue-specific anthocyanin regulation we have isolated orthologous MYB genes from all the commercially important rosaceous species. Results We use gene specific primers to show that the three MYB activators of apple anthocyanin (MYB10/MYB1/MYBA) are likely alleles of each other. MYB transcription factors, with high sequence identity to the apple gene were isolated from across the rosaceous family (e.g. apples, pears, plums, cherries, peaches, raspberries, rose, strawberry). Key identifying amino acid residues were found in both the DNA-binding and C-terminal domains of these MYBs. The expression of these MYB10 genes correlates with fruit and flower anthocyanin levels. Their function was tested in tobacco and strawberry. In tobacco, these MYBs were shown to induce the anthocyanin pathway when co-expressed with bHLHs, while over-expression of strawberry and apple genes in the crop of origin elevates anthocyanins. Conclusions This family-wide study of rosaceous R2R3 MYBs provides insight into the evolution of this plant trait. It has implications for the development of new coloured fruit and flowers, as well as aiding the understanding of temporal-spatial colour change.