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Author

Keith A. Crutcher

Other affiliations: University of Findlay, University of Utah, Duke University  ...read more
Bio: Keith A. Crutcher is an academic researcher from University of Cincinnati. The author has contributed to research in topics: Nerve growth factor & Hippocampal formation. The author has an hindex of 47, co-authored 128 publications receiving 5741 citations. Previous affiliations of Keith A. Crutcher include University of Findlay & University of Utah.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present findings indicate that AD is characterized by a widespread increase in cortical and subcortical NGF, and the AD-related decline in NGF found in nbM is consistent with the possibility of impaired retrograde transport of NGF to this region.
Abstract: The current study analyzed NGF protein levels in the brains of patients with Alzheimer9s disease (AD) as compared with aged neurologically normal individuals An established two-site ELISA was used to measure NGF-like immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, superior temporal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, frontal and occipital cortical poles, cerebellum, amygdala, putamen, and nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) ChAT activity was assayed in adjacent tissue samples NGF levels were also evaluated in Parkinson9s disease for comparison with both AD and age-matched control cases Regardless of the brain bank (University of Cincinnati, Rush Presbyterian St Luke9s Medical Center in Chicago, or University of Alabama at Birmingham), NGF-like activity was at least moderately increased with AD in virtually every brain region examined except for the nbM, in which significant declines were observed NGF levels were also increased when compared with age- matched Parkinson9s cases (frontal cortex) NGF-like activity was not related to age at onset or disease duration in AD cases, nor did NGF levels correlate with age at death in the control or AD groups Correlations between ChAT and NGF-like activity across brains varied considerably and were generally not significant The present findings indicate that AD is characterized by a widespread increase in cortical and subcortical NGF Although a correlation with ChAT activity was not observed in cortex, the AD-related decline in NGF found in nbM is consistent with the possibility of impaired retrograde transport of NGF to this region

268 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting NGF-like activity in both fresh and postmortem human brain tissue and suggest that AD is characterized by increased, rather than decreased, levels of cortical beta-NGF.
Abstract: A two-site ELISA and a bioassay were used to detect NGF-like activity in human brain tissue. Both assays detected mouse NGF and recombinant human NGF with approximately equal sensitivity, whereas the antibodies showed little cross-reactivity with the recombinant human proteins NT-3 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. NGF-like activity was detected in fresh human cortical samples obtained from epileptic patients, with the highest activity observed in the right hemisphere of men. NGF-like activity was subsequently measured in autopsy samples of frontal and occipital cortex from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and from individuals with no history or pathological evidence of AD. Based on both the ELISA and the bioassay measurements, NGF-like activity was significantly elevated in both brain regions in AD. These results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting NGF-like activity in both fresh and postmortem human brain tissue and further suggest that AD is characterized by increased, rather than decreased, levels of cortical beta-NGF. The AD-related increase in NGF may be a consequence of degenerative changes in the basal forebrain cholinergic system.

238 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that the presence of the APOE4 allele is not associated with the initial severity of brain injury following TBI but is associated with increased risk of poor long-term outcome at 6 months after injury.
Abstract: There is conflicting evidence regarding a possible association between the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele and the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our aim was to carry out a meta-analysis of cohort studies of sufficient rigor to determine whether the presence of the APOE4 allele contributes to initial injury severity and/or poor outcome following TBI. MEDLINE, EMBase, CBMdisc, and CNKI databases were searched for literature published from January 1993 to October 2007. Of the 100 identified studies, 14 cohort studies were selected for analysis based on comprehensive quality assessment using a standardized scale. Data from the 14 eligible cohort studies included a total of 2527 participants, 736 with and 1791 without the APOE4 allele. The APOE4 allele was not associated with initial injury severity of TBI. The pooled RR were 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.35) for severe injury, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.86-1.31) for moderate injury and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.81-1.06) for mild injury. However, the APOE4 allele was significantly associated with a poor outcome of TBI at 6 months after injury (RR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.78). The association remained significant in sensitivity tests. This meta-analysis indicates that the presence of the APOE4 allele is not associated with the initial severity of brain injury following TBI but is associated with increased risk of poor long-term outcome at 6 months after injury.

230 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 Jul 1982-Science
TL;DR: Results suggest that specific growth factors account for the specificity of neuronal sprouting in the rat hippocampal formation.
Abstract: The rat hippocampal formation was tested for the presence of factors that would accelerate neurite extension from chick parasympathetic (ciliary ganglion) or sympathetic (lumbar chain) neurons in vitro. Two growth factors were identified in extracts of this brain region. One accelerated neurite extension from sympathetic neurons and was blocked by antiserum to nerve growth factor. The other accelerated neurite extension from parasympathetic neurons but was not affected by the antiserum. These results suggest that specific growth factors account for the specificity of neuronal sprouting.

173 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results suggest that apoE may be a source of both neurotoxicity and calcium influx that involves cell surface receptors, and strengthen the hypothesis that ApoE plays a direct role in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease.
Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-related synthetic peptides, the 22 kDa N-terminal thrombin-cleavage fragment of apoE (truncated apoE), and full-length apoE have all been shown to exhibit neurotoxic activity under certain culture conditions. In the present study, protease inhibitors reduced the neurotoxicity and proteolysis of full-length apoE but did not block the toxicity of truncated apoE or a synthetic apoE peptide, suggesting that fragments of apoE may account for its toxicity. Additional experiments demonstrated that both truncated apoE and the apoE peptide elicit an increase in intracellular calcium levels and subsequent death of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons in culture. Similar effects on calcium were found when the apoE peptide was applied to chick sympathetic neurons. The rise in intracellular calcium and the hippocampal cell death caused by the apoE peptide were significantly reduced by receptor-associated protein, removal of extracellular calcium, or administration of the specific NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801. These results suggest that apoE may be a source of both neurotoxicity and calcium influx that involves cell surface receptors. Such findings strengthen the hypothesis that apoE plays a direct role in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease.

157 citations


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TL;DR: Neurotrophins regulate development, maintenance, and function of vertebrate nervous systems, and control synaptic function and synaptic plasticity, while continuing to modulate neuronal survival.
Abstract: Neurotrophins regulate development, maintenance, and function of vertebrate nervous systems. Neurotrophins activate two different classes of receptors, the Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases and p75NTR, a member of the TNF receptor superfamily. Through these, neurotrophins activate many signaling pathways, including those mediated by ras and members of the cdc-42/ras/rho G protein families, and the MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, and Jun kinase cascades. During development, limiting amounts of neurotrophins function as survival factors to ensure a match between the number of surviving neurons and the requirement for appropriate target innervation. They also regulate cell fate decisions, axon growth, dendrite pruning, the patterning of innervation and the expression of proteins crucial for normal neuronal function, such as neurotransmitters and ion channels. These proteins also regulate many aspects of neural function. In the mature nervous system, they control synaptic function and synaptic plasticity, while continuing to modulate neuronal survival.

3,968 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The A β-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms that link Apo-E4 status with AD risk are discussed, and how to design effective strategies for AD therapy by targeting ApO-E is considered.
Abstract: Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) is a major cholesterol carrier that supports lipid transport and injury repair in the brain. APOE polymorphic alleles are the main genetic determinants of Alzheimer disease (AD) risk: individuals carrying the e4 allele are at increased risk of AD compared with those carrying the more common e3 allele, whereas the e2 allele decreases risk. Presence of the APOE e4 allele is also associated with increased risk of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and age-related cognitive decline during normal ageing. Apo-E-lipoproteins bind to several cell-surface receptors to deliver lipids, and also to hydrophobic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, which is thought to initiate toxic events that lead to synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in AD. Apo-E isoforms differentially regulate Aβ aggregation and clearance in the brain, and have distinct functions in regulating brain lipid transport, glucose metabolism, neuronal signalling, neuroinflammation, and mitochondrial function. In this Review, we describe current knowledge on Apo-E in the CNS, with a particular emphasis on the clinical and pathological features associated with carriers of different Apo-E isoforms. We also discuss Aβ-dependent and Aβ-independent mechanisms that link Apo-E4 status with AD risk, and consider how to design effective strategies for AD therapy by targeting Apo-E.

2,463 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent findings that neurotrophins, in addition to promoting survival and differentiation, exert various effects through surprising interactions with other receptors and ion channels are reviewed.
Abstract: The neurotrophins are a family of proteins that are essential for the development of the vertebrate nervous system. Each neurotrophin can signal through two different types of cell surface receptor — the Trk receptor tyrosine kinases and the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Given the wide range of activities that are now associated with neurotrophins, it is probable that additional regulatory events and signalling systems are involved. Here, I review recent findings that neurotrophins, in addition to promoting survival and differentiation, exert various effects through surprising interactions with other receptors and ion channels.

2,065 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The activation of SNS during an immune response might be aimed to localize the inflammatory response, through induction of neutrophil accumulation and stimulation of more specific humoral immune responses, although systemically it may suppress Th1 responses, and, thus protect the organism from the detrimental effects of proinflammatory cytokines and other products of activated macrophages.
Abstract: The brain and the immune system are the two major adaptive systems of the body During an immune response the brain and the immune system "talk to each other" and this process is essential for maintaining homeostasis Two major pathway systems are involved in this cross-talk: the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) This overview focuses on the role of SNS in neuroimmune interactions, an area that has received much less attention than the role of HPA axis Evidence accumulated over the last 20 years suggests that norepinephrine (NE) fulfills the criteria for neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in lymphoid organs Thus, primary and secondary lymphoid organs receive extensive sympathetic/noradrenergic innervation Under stimulation, NE is released from the sympathetic nerve terminals in these organs, and the target immune cells express adrenoreceptors Through stimulation of these receptors, locally released NE, or circulating catecholamines such as epinephrine, affect lymphocyte traffic, circulation, and proliferation, and modulate cytokine production and the functional activity of different lymphoid cells Although there exists substantial sympathetic innervation in the bone marrow, and particularly in the thymus and mucosal tissues, our knowledge about the effect of the sympathetic neural input on hematopoiesis, thymocyte development, and mucosal immunity is extremely modest In addition, recent evidence is discussed that NE and epinephrine, through stimulation of the beta(2)-adrenoreceptor-cAMP-protein kinase A pathway, inhibit the production of type 1/proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL-12), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma by antigen-presenting cells and T helper (Th) 1 cells, whereas they stimulate the production of type 2/anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta Through this mechanism, systemically, endogenous catecholamines may cause a selective suppression of Th1 responses and cellular immunity, and a Th2 shift toward dominance of humoral immunity On the other hand, in certain local responses, and under certain conditions, catecholamines may actually boost regional immune responses, through induction of IL-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and primarily IL-8 production Thus, the activation of SNS during an immune response might be aimed to localize the inflammatory response, through induction of neutrophil accumulation and stimulation of more specific humoral immune responses, although systemically it may suppress Th1 responses, and, thus protect the organism from the detrimental effects of proinflammatory cytokines and other products of activated macrophages The above-mentioned immunomodulatory effects of catecholamines and the role of SNS are also discussed in the context of their clinical implication in certain infections, major injury and sepsis, autoimmunity, chronic pain and fatigue syndromes, and tumor growth Finally, the pharmacological manipulation of the sympathetic-immune interface is reviewed with focus on new therapeutic strategies using selective alpha(2)- and beta(2)-adrenoreceptor agonists and antagonists and inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type IV in the treatment of experimental models of autoimmune diseases, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue syndrome

2,030 citations