scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Keith A. Crutcher

Bio: Keith A. Crutcher is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Vocabulary & Visual language. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 5 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal Article
TL;DR: This paper describes the initial exploration of a visual language approach to the display of concepts found in published scientific papers: in this case, some hypotheses surrounding the etiology of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract: The accelerating rate of data generation and resulting publications are taxing the ability of scientific investigators to stay current with the emerging literature This problem, acute in science, is not uncommon in other areas New approaches to managing this explosion of information are needed While it is only possible to read one paper or abstract at a time, it is possible to grasp concepts presented visually in milliseconds This suggests the possibility of developing a visual language to represent concepts from a multitude of published papers in an accurate display that is highly condensed, yet readable in seconds This paper describes the initial exploration of a visual language approach to the display of concepts found in published scientific papers: in this case, some hypotheses surrounding the etiology of Alzheimer's Disease The approach is based on deriving propositions from papers or abstracts, breaking propositions into concept objects, designing a visual object system (consisting of icons, signs, glyphs and combinations) to represent all the objects in the relevant concept space, displaying the objects as a networked constellation and linking the visual display back to the papers from which they came The ultimate goal is to develop visual language techniques capable of revealing patterns, pathways and conceptual connections not readily apparent from text-based list of findings and using such visual language to make interactive displays that accurately represent large quantities of data in a condensed conceptual form Such an approach has potential application to any field of study that has a controlled vocabulary FACETS OF A PROBLEM You can see a lot Thanks to the computer and the Internet, there is a lot more to see, read and com Drehend than ever before According to Lyman and Varian, in the year 2000 the world produced between one and two exabytes (a billion gigabytes) of unique information, about 250 megabytes for every man woman and child on earth (Lyman and Varian, 2000) By 2003 this was five exabytes annually Those leading the pursuit of specialized knowledge, whether in science or other areas, are also on the forefront of dealing with this growth of information in dramatic ways In science, the primary source of new information is peer-reviewed papers and abstracts published in specialized journals In the area of medical research, the National Library of Medicine manages an online resource known as PubMed that currently hosts over 12,000,000 journal articles Users can type a text query and retrieve all of the relevant references (with abstracts) based on key words A recent (10/24/06) PubMed query using "Alzheimer*" as the search term, for example, returned 54,430 citations The rate at which the literature in this field has increased during the lifetime of one of us (KAC) is shown in the accompanying chart (figure 1) Let's imagine that a new investigator wants to become familiar with this literature At fifteen minutes per paper, it would take seven years of reading to get through all 54,000 - allowing for eight hours of reading per day with time off for weekends, holidays and vacations! To master the literature in the area of Alzheimer's Disease, however, would also require reading new papers, which are currently published at a rate close to 5,000 per year By the time the investigator had finished reading what is available today, the new stack of unread papers would be 35,000 (assuming no further increase in the number of papers per year) Yet staying abreast of what is happening in their field is exactly what scientists are expected to do Clearly, reading every paper is not viable This constant growth in information, acute in medicine and science, also occurs in other fields As if this explosion of data was not problem enough, biological systems have inherent complexity and relevant data come from various fields of study and various levels of analysis, ranging from atoms to populations …

5 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings suggest that co-designing with end-users, challenges graphic designers’ use of intuition, as new ways of categorizing asthma information material were revealed that previous design-led processes had overlooked.
Abstract: This paper aims to understand how co-design influences the design process, by presenting a case study where graphic designers and end-users co-designed asthma information. Three co-design activitie...

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2012
TL;DR: This paper proposes the adoption of a holistic approach—metascience—to enhance and structure postgraduate communication design research, which would help to narrow the gap between academia and professional practice.
Abstract: Communication design research is becoming an essential component in solving current design problems and tackling new design challenges. However, the notion of a scientific approach to communication...

5 citations

Book ChapterDOI
30 Jul 2009
TL;DR: Here neurocognitive inspirations are used to create similar semantic graphs in an automated fashion that allow semi-automated query refinement and literature based discovery.
Abstract: Internet literature queries return a long lists of citations, ordered according to their relevance or date. Query results may also be represented using Visual Language that takes as input a small set of semantically related concepts present in the citations. First experiments with such visualization have been done using PubMed neuronal plasticity citations with manually created semantic graphs. Here neurocognitive inspirations are used to create similar semantic graphs in an automated fashion. This way a long list of citations is changed to small semantic graphs that allow semi-automated query refinement and literature based discovery.

3 citations

01 Oct 2009
TL;DR: The following stages for improving the creation of mappings are identified: 1) Multidisciplinary work teams 2) Organisation of information in a regular and systematic way 3) Adoption of a design method.
Abstract: The representation of complex information, whether scientific or from other areas, is being adapted for clearer understandings of, for example, how to obtain a better service or how to learn about specialized knowledge easily. Some authors (Zender and Crutcher, 2007) suggest the need of new tools to find a better solution to communicate those complex contents. In the recent years, mapping has become a way of making sense of things, with diagrams being an often used and effective visual tool for representing complex information. Mapping has been adopted to represent all kind of non-geographic narratives, from scientific projects to medical explanations (Owen, 2002). As part of a PhD research project we have identified the following stages for improving the creation of mappings: 1) Multidisciplinary work teams 2) Organisation of information in a regular and systematic way 3) Adoption of a design method

1 citations