Kenneth L. Campbell
Other affiliations: Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Massachusetts Amherst ...read more
Bio: Kenneth L. Campbell is an academic researcher from University of Massachusetts Boston. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Population & Crash. The author has an hindex of 24, co-authored 78 publication(s) receiving 2449 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Kenneth L. Campbell include Aberdeen Royal Infirmary & University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Topics: Population, Crash, Poison control, Truck, Collision
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Men had a higher risk than women of experiencing a fatal crash, while women had higher rates of involvement in injury crashes and all police-reported crashes.
Abstract: Passenger-vehicle travel data from the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey were combined with crash data from the 1990 Fatal Accident Reporting System and the 1990 General Estimates System to produce crash involvement rates per vehicle-mile of travel. Elevated rates were observed for drivers aged 16-19 and 75 and over. The oldest drivers had the highest fatal involvement rate, while the youngest drivers had the highest rate of involvement in all police-reported crashes. Men had a higher risk than women of experiencing a fatal crash, while women had higher rates of involvement in injury crashes and all police-reported crashes.
01 Dec 1999-Hormones and Behavior
TL;DR: Testing the hypothesis that implicit power motivation moderates individuals' testosterone responses to the anticipated success in and actual outcome of a dominance contest found individuals high only in p Power had elevated testosterone after imagining a success in a subsequent dominance contest.
Abstract: This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation moderates individuals' testosterone responses to the anticipated success in and actual outcome of a dominance contest. Salivary testosterone levels were assessed in 42 male students at the beginning of the study, after they had imagined a success in an ensuing power contest, and immediately after the contest had taken place. Contest outcome (winning or losing against a competitor on a speed-based task) was varied experimentally. Participants' power motive was assessed with a picture-story exercise, in which an assertive, personalized (p Power) component was distinguished from an altruistic, socialized (s Power) component. In contrast to all other participants, individuals high only in p Power (a) had elevated testosterone after imagining a success in a subsequent dominance contest and (b) continued to have high testosterone levels after actually winning, but not after losing, the contest.
TL;DR: Results of the modelling show men to have a consistently higher risk of crash involvement per mile driven than women for all six combinations of crash severity and light condition examined, consistent with the idea that women's typically low average annual mileage is a factor in their observed higher non-fatal crash involvement rates.
Abstract: The effects of four predictor variables-driver age, driver gender, time of day, and average annual mileage-on crash involvement rates were estimated through the use of multivariate modelling techniques. Separate models were developed for fatal, injury, and property damage only crashes. All four predictor variables proved to be highly significant in explaining variations in observed rates. Rates predicted by the models after substituting the mean average annual mileage value for all driver age/gender groups were also calculated. These 'adjusted rates' show men to have a consistently higher risk of crash involvement per mile driven than women for all six combinations of crash severity and light condition examined. This contrasts with women's higher involvement rates in non-fatal crashes compared with men in the observed data. The results of the modelling are consistent with the idea that women's typically low average annual mileage is a factor in their observed higher non-fatal crash involvement rates.
01 Nov 1979-Biology of Reproduction
TL;DR: Pretreatment of ovaries with EGTA and hypertonic sucrose appears to be a reliable procedure for improving the yield of monodisperse, viable, biochemically intact granulosa cells for use in in vitro examinations of follicular physiology and function.
Abstract: Chemical treatments previously shown to disrupt gap junctions were applied to rat ovaries with antral follicles prior to expressing the granulosa cells with a blunt spatula. Exposure of the ovaries to 6.8 mM EGTA lethyleneglycol-bis-13-aminoethyl ether)-N,N’-tetracetic acid I and 0.5 M sucrose either by perfusion in situ or incubation in vitro generated monodisperse suspensions of granulosa cells with improved integrity as evaluated by several criteria. Similar numbers of granulosa cells (7-8 X 106 per ovary) were obtained either by direct physical expression or by pretreatment of the ovaries followed by physical expression. However, the ability of the granulosa cells to exdude trypan blue dye was consistently improved 2-3-fold by pretreatment with EGTA and hypertonic sucrose (from 25% to 40-80%). Likewise, in vitro synthetic capacities for protein, RNA and DNA were enhanced 2-6-fold, 5-10-fold and 10-20-fold, respectively. A qualitative one-to-one correspondence between protein synthesis and vital dye exdusion was demonstrable but the quantitative relationship between dye exclusion and macromolecular precursor incorporation appeared to be nonlinear. Cells obtained using the chemical pretreatments also demonstrated better survival in minimal medium for at least the first 12 h of culture The enhancements observed could not be obtained by reversing the order of the chemical treatments or by treating granulosa cells after physical removal from ovarian follicles. Pretreatment of ovaries with EGTA and hypertonic sucrose appears to be a reliable procedure for improving the yield of monodisperse, viable, biochemically intact granulosa cells for use in in vitro examinations of follicular physiology and function.
01 Jan 1988
TL;DR: In this paper, a preliminary attempt to characterise reproductive patterns in traditional, pre-industrial societies, including hunter-gatherers, tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists and settled peasant agriculturalists, is made.
Abstract: This chapter is a preliminary attempt to characterise reproductive patterns in traditional, pre-industrial societies, including huntergatherers, tribal horticulturalists and pastoralists and settled peasant agriculturalists. Assertions about the level of fertility in such societies have played a key role in the development of theoretical models in demography and anthropology and, more recently, in reproductive biology. In classic demographic transition theory, for example, it was assumed that pre-transitional societies were characterised by uniformly high fertility rates, which provided the starting point for the recent secular decline in fertility (Knodel, 1977). Most ecological anthropologists, in contrast, have come to believe that many traditional societies, especially unacculturated hunter-gatherers, have regulated their reproductive output at relatively low levels (Dumond, 1975; Peacock, 1986). It has even been suggested that there occurred an earlier, stone-age demographic transition toward higher. birth and death rates associated with the emergence of settled village life during the Neolithic (Handwerker, 1983; Roth, 1985).1
TL;DR: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols used xiii 1.
Abstract: Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity Pattern 19 4. The Strategy of Colonization 68 5. Invasibility and the Variable Niche 94 6. Stepping Stones and Biotic Exchange 123 7. Evolutionary Changes Following Colonization 145 8. Prospect 181 Glossary 185 References 193 Index 201
01 Jul 1932-The Journal of Religion
TL;DR: In this paper, the Shand-McDougall concept of sentiment is taken over and used in the explanation of moral motivation, which is reinforced by social pressures and by religion, treating as an effort of finite man to live in harmony with the infinite reality.
Abstract: In his Preface the author' says that he started out to review all the more important theories upon the topics ordinarily discussed under human motivation but soon found himself more and more limited to the presentation of his own point of view. This very well characterizes the book. It is a very personal product. It is an outline with some defense of the author's own thinking about instincts and appetites and sentiments and how they function in human behavior. And as the author draws so heavily upon James and McDougall, especially the latter, the book may well be looked upon as a sort of sequel to their efforts. There is a thought-provoking distinction presented between instinct and appetite. An instinct is said to be aroused always by something in the external situation; and, correspondingly, an appetite is said to be aroused by sensations from within the body itself. This places, of course, a heavy emphasis upon the cognitive factor in all instinctive behaviors; and the author prefers to use the cognitive factor, especially the knowledge of that end-experience which will satisfy, as a means of differentiating one instinct from another. In this there is a recognized difference from McDougall who placed more emphasis for differentiation upon the emotional accompaniment. The list of instincts arrived at by this procedure is much like that of McDougall, although the author is forced by his criteria to present the possibility of food-seeking and sex and sleep operating both in the manner of an appetite and also as an instinct. The Shand-McDougall concept of sentiment is taken over and used in the explanation of moral motivation. There is the development within each personality of a sentiment for some moral principle. But this sentiment is not a very powerful motivating factor. It is reinforced by social pressures and by religion, which is treated as an effort of finite man to live in harmony with the infinite reality. Those whose psychological thinking is largely in terms of McDougall will doubtless find this volume a very satisfying expansion; but those who are at all inclined to support their psychological thinking by reference to experimental studies will not be so well pleased. The James-Lange theory, for example, is discussed without mention of the many experimental studies which it has provoked. Theoretical sources appear in general to be preferred to experimental investigations.
01 Jan 1956-Journal of Anatomy
TL;DR: This beautifully printed and well-illustrated stiff paperbacked volume is, and will for a few years yet remain, an invaluable companion to a full-scale textbook on congenital heart disease.
Abstract: argument is often, if not acrimonious, at least heated. It gives an impression of the fluidity of opinion on many fundamental ideas under discussion and of the urgency with which cardiac cyanosis in the newborn is regarded. When Dr. William Muscott says that the earliest he has operated for pulmonary stenosis is on an infant 3 days old, and Sir Russell Brock agrees that the earlier in the first month that operation is undertaken the better, and when Dr. Varco asks Dr. Senning 'so far as I know they have never yet catheterized any child intrauterine in Sweden, but they have done it through the delivery canal sometimes-would you tell us the indications of the Scandinavian group for catheterization in the immediate newborn period?', one is indeed being kept up with the times. But that was two years ago and already some of the questions then debated have since been answered. This beautifully printed and well-illustrated stiff paperbacked volume is, and will for a few years yet remain, an invaluable companion to a full-scale textbook on congenital heart disease.
TL;DR: Predictions were that that testosterone would rise at puberty to moderate levels, which supported reproductive physiology and behavior, and that testosterone levels will be associated with different behavioral profiles among men, associated with life history strategies involving emphasis on either mating or parental effort.
Abstract: Research on testosterone-behavior relationships in humans is assessed in relation to a version of the challenge hypothesis, originally proposed to account for testosterone-aggression associations in monogamous birds. Predictions were that that testosterone would rise at puberty to moderate levels, which supported reproductive physiology and behavior. Sexual arousal and challenges involving young males would raise testosterone levels further. In turn, this would facilitate direct competitive behavior, including aggression. When males are required to care for offspring, testosterone levels will decrease. Testosterone levels will also be associated with different behavioral profiles among men, associated with life history strategies involving emphasis on either mating or parental effort. Most of these predictions were supported by the review of current research, although most studies were not designed to specifically test the challenge hypothesis.
01 Nov 2004-Psychological Bulletin
TL;DR: 5 middle-level theories--energetics theory, stress-suppression theory, psychosocial acceleration theory, paternal investment theory, and child development theory--each of which applies the basic assumptions of life history theory to the question of environmental influences on timing of puberty in girls are reviewed.
Abstract: Life history theory provides a metatheoretical framework for the study of pubertal timing from an evolutionary-developmental perspective. The current article reviews 5 middle-level theories--energetics theory stress-suppression theory psychosocial acceleration theory paternal investment theory and child development theory--each of which applies the basic assumptions of life history theory to the question of environmental influences on timing of puberty in girls. These theories converge in their conceptualization of pubertal timing as responsive to ecological conditions but diverge in their conceptualization of: a. the nature extent and direction of environmental influences and; b. the effects of pubertal timing on other reproductive variables. Comparing hypotheses derived from the 5 perspectives are evaluated. An extension of W.T. Boyce and B.J. Elliss (in press) theory of stress reactivity is proposed to account for both inhibiting and accelerating effects of psychosocial stress on timing of pubertal development. This review highlights the multiplicity of (often unrecognized) perspectives guiding research raises challenges to virtually all of these and presents an alternative framework in an effort to move research forward in this arena of multidisciplinary inquiry. (authors)