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Kenneth P. Offord

Bio: Kenneth P. Offord is an academic researcher from Mayo Clinic. The author has contributed to research in topics: Smoking cessation & Nicotine. The author has an hindex of 92, co-authored 332 publications receiving 30522 citations. Previous affiliations of Kenneth P. Offord include Loyola University Chicago & Loyola University Medical Center.


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TL;DR: Bone mineral density was measured in vivo at the lumbar spine (predominantly trabecular bone) by dual photon absorptiometry and at the midradius (greater than 95% cortical bone) and distal radius (75% cortical and 25% trabECular bone), by single photon absorptioniometry as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Patterns of bone loss in the axial and the appendicular skeleton were studied in 185 normal volunteers (105 women and 82 men; age range, 20--89 yr) and in 76 women and 9 men with vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis. Bone mineral density was measured in vivo at the lumbar spine (predominantly trabecular bone) by dual photon absorptiometry and at the midradius (greater than 95% cortical bone) and distal radius (75% cortical and 25% trabecular bone) by single photon absorptiometry. In normal women, bone diminution from the vertebrae began in young adulthood and was linear. In the appendicular skeleton, bone diminution did not occur until age 50 yr, was accelerated from aged 51 to 65 yr, and then decelerated somewhat after age 65 yr. Overall bone diminution throughout life was 47% for the vertebrae, 30% for the midradius, and 39% for the distal radius. In normal men, vertebral and appendicular bone diminution with aging was minimal or insignificant. Mean bone mineral density was lower in patients with osteoporosis than in age- and sex-matched normal subjects at all three scanning sites, although spinal measurements discriminated best; however, there was considerable overlap. By age 65 yr, half of the normal women (and by age 85 yr, virtually all of them) had vertebral bone mineral density values below the 90th percentile of women with vertebral fractures and, thus, might be considered to have asymptomatic osteoporosis. For men, the degree of overlap was less. The data suggest that disproportionate loss of trabecular bone from the axial skeleton is a distinguishing characteristic of spinal osteoporosis.

1,167 citations

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TL;DR: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a sustained-release form of bupropion for smoking cessation, which excluded smokers with current depression, but not those with a history of major depression.
Abstract: Background and Methods Trials of antidepressant medications for smoking cessation have had mixed results. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a sustained-release form of bupropion for smoking cessation. We excluded smokers with current depression, but not those with a history of major depression. The 615 subjects were randomly assigned to receive placebo or bupropion at a dose of 100, 150, or 300 mg per day for seven weeks. The target quitting date (or “target quit date”) was one week after the beginning of treatment. Brief counseling was provided at base line, weekly during treatment, and at 8, 12, 26, and 52 weeks. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon monoxide concentration in expired air of 10 ppm or less. Results At the end of seven weeks of treatment, the rates of smoking cessation as confirmed by carbon monoxide measurements were 19.0 percent in the placebo group, 28.8 percent in the 100-mg group, 38.6 percent in the 150-mg group, and 44.2 percent in the 300-mg gro...

1,163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Retrospective analysis of 104 patients with IPF who had open lung biopsy at Mayo Medical Center from 1976 to 1985 was performed to establish the overall survival rate, the spectrum of histopathological subgroups and their associated prognostic significance.
Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a generally fatal disorder with a reported median survival of 3 to 6 yr. This has been based on relatively few studies with diagnoses inconsistently confirmed by adequate lung biopsy. Retrospective analysis of 104 patients with IPF who had open lung biopsy (OLB) at Mayo Medical Center from 1976 to 1985 was performed to establish the overall survival rate, the spectrum of histopathological subgroups and their associated prognostic significance. The study group consisted of 54 men and 50 women with a median age of 63 yr. Median survival was 3.8 yr after diagnosis by OLB with an estimated 10 yr survival of 27%. Current histopathologic review showed a heterogeneous group including usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis (NSIP), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), bronchiolitis, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), and others. Median survival of the UIP group was 2.8 yr which is significantly worse (p < 0.001) than for other subgroups of chronic interstitial pneumonias. IPF includes several histopathologic subgroups with significantly different survival rates. Patients with UIP have worse survival than patients with other types of idiopathic chronic interstitial pneumonias including NSIP. Accurate histopathologic classification is essential for prognostication in patients with IPF.

997 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest the existence of two distinct syndromes: one form, "postmenopausal osteoporosis," is characterized by excessive and disproportionate trabecular bone loss, involves a small subset of women in the early postmenopausal period, and is associated with hip fractures or vertebral fractures or both.
Abstract: We measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur, lumbar spine, or both by dual photon absorptiometry in 205 normal volunteers (123 women and 82 men; age range 20 to 92 yr) and in 31 patients with hip fractures (26 women and 5 men; mean age, 78 yr). For normal women, the regression of BMD on age was negative and linear at each site; overall decrease during life was 58% in the femoral neck, 53% in the intertrochanteric region of the femur, and 42% in the lumbar spine. For normal men, the age regression was linear also; the rate of decrease in BMD was two-thirds of that in women for femoral neck and intertrochanteric femur but was only one-fourth of that in women for lumbar spine. This difference may explain why the female/male ratio is 2:1 for hip fractures but 8:1 for vertebral fractures. The standard deviation (Z-score) from the sex-specific age-adjusted normal mean in 26 women with hip fracture averaged -0.31 (P < 0.05) for the femoral neck, -0.53 (P < 0.01) for the intertrochanteric femur, and +0.24 (NS) for the lumbar spine; results were similar for 5 men with hip fractures. By contrast, for 27 additional women, ages 51-65 yr, with only nontraumatic vertebral fractures, the Z-score was -1.92 (P < 0.001) for the lumbar spine. Thus, contrary to the view that osteoporosis is a single age-related entity, our data suggest the existence of two distinct syndromes. One form, "postmenopausal osteoporosis," is characterized by excessive and disproportionate trabecular bone loss, involves a small subset of women in the early postmenopausal period, and is associated mainly with vertebral fractures. The other form, "senile osteoporosis," is characterized by proportionate loss of both cortical and trabecular bone, involves essentially the entire population of aging women and, to a lesser extent, aging men, and is associated with hip fractures or vertebral fractures or both.

755 citations

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TL;DR: Exposure to the aeroallergen A. alternata is a risk factor for respiratory arrest in children and young adults with asthma and is found to be associated with an increase of approximately 200-fold in the risk of respiratory arrest.
Abstract: Background. Exposure to airborne spores of the common mold Alternaria alternata has been implicated in asthma attacks. Such exposure is particularly frequent in the Midwest during the summer and fall months. To determine the role of A. alternata in triggering severe asthma attacks, we investigated the cases of 11 patients with asthma who had sudden respiratory arrest and determined the frequency of sensitivity to this allergen in these patients. Methods. The 11 patients (age range, 11 to 25 years) with initial episodes of respiratory arrest, which was fatal in 2 patients, were identified in the course of their care in our pediatric and adult clinical allergy practice and by a retrospective review of all Mayo Clinic records of patients with severe asthma cared for between 1980 and 1989. Skin-test reactivity to A. alternata and levels of IgE antibody against this mold in the 11 patients were compared with those in 99 matched controls with asthma who had no history of respiratory arrest. Results. All the pat...

645 citations


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TL;DR: It is recommended that spirometry is required for the clinical diagnosis of COPD to avoid misdiagnosis and to ensure proper evaluation of severity of airflow limitation.
Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major public health problem. It is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality in the United States, and is projected to rank fifth in 2020 in burden of disease worldwide, according to a study published by the World Bank/World Health Organization. Yet, COPD remains relatively unknown or ignored by the public as well as public health and government officials. In 1998, in an effort to bring more attention to COPD, its management, and its prevention, a committed group of scientists encouraged the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the World Health Organization to form the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Among the important objectives of GOLD are to increase awareness of COPD and to help the millions of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely of it or its complications. The first step in the GOLD program was to prepare a consensus report, Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of COPD, published in 2001. The present, newly revised document follows the same format as the original consensus report, but has been updated to reflect the many publications on COPD that have appeared. GOLD national leaders, a network of international experts, have initiated investigations of the causes and prevalence of COPD in their countries, and developed innovative approaches for the dissemination and implementation of COPD management guidelines. We appreciate the enormous amount of work the GOLD national leaders have done on behalf of their patients with COPD. Despite the achievements in the 5 years since the GOLD report was originally published, considerable additional work is ahead of us if we are to control this major public health problem. The GOLD initiative will continue to bring COPD to the attention of governments, public health officials, health care workers, and the general public, but a concerted effort by all involved in health care will be necessary.

17,023 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Patients who meet the criteria for MCI can be differentiated from healthy control subjects and those with very mild AD, and appear to constitute a clinical entity that can be characterized for treatment interventions.
Abstract: Background Subjects with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a memory impairment beyond that expected for age and education yet are not demented. These subjects are becoming the focus of many prediction studies and early intervention trials. Objective To characterize clinically subjects with MCI cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Design A prospective, longitudinal inception cohort. Setting General community clinic. Participants A sample of 76 consecutively evaluated subjects with MCI were compared with 234 healthy control subjects and 106 patients with mild Alzheimer disease (AD), all from a community setting as part of the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Center/Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, Rochester, Minn. Main Outcome Measures The 3 groups of individuals were compared on demographic factors and measures of cognitive function including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised, Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised, Dementia Rating Scale, Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Clinical classifications of dementia and AD were determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, respectively. Results The primary distinction between control subjects and subjects with MCI was in the area of memory, while other cognitive functions were comparable. However, when the subjects with MCI were compared with the patients with very mild AD, memory performance was similar, but patients with AD were more impaired in other cognitive domains as well. Longitudinal performance demonstrated that the subjects with MCI declined at a rate greater than that of the controls but less rapidly than the patients with mild AD. Conclusions Patients who meet the criteria for MCI can be differentiated from healthy control subjects and those with very mild AD. They appear to constitute a clinical entity that can be characterized for treatment interventions.

8,255 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Mar 1993-Nature
TL;DR: Tight genetic linkage between FALS and a gene that encodes a cytosolic, Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a homodimeric metalloenzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the toxic superoxide anion O–2 to O2 and H2O2 is reported.
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Its cause is unknown and it is uniformly fatal, typically within five years. About 10% of cases are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with high penetrance after the sixth decade. In most instances, sporadic and autosomal dominant familial ALS (FALS) are clinically similar. We have previously shown that in some but not all FALS pedigrees the disease is linked to a genetic defect on chromosome 21q (refs 8, 9). Here we report tight genetic linkage between FALS and a gene that encodes a cytosolic, Cu/Zn-binding superoxide dismutase (SOD1), a homodimeric metalloenzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the toxic superoxide anion O2.- to O2 and H2O2 (ref. 10). Given this linkage and the potential role of free radical toxicity in other neurodenegerative disorders, we investigated SOD1 as a candidate gene in FALS. We identified 11 different SOD1 missense mutations in 13 different FALS families.

6,733 citations