Keun Woo Lee
Other affiliations: University of Houston, UPRRP College of Natural Sciences, University of Southern California ...read more
Bio: Keun Woo Lee is an academic researcher from Gyeongsang National University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Pharmacophore & Virtual screening. The author has an hindex of 34, co-authored 223 publications receiving 3587 citations. Previous affiliations of Keun Woo Lee include University of Houston & UPRRP College of Natural Sciences.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The best five features pharmacophore model, Hypo1, includes two hydrogen bond acceptors, three hydrophobic features, which has the highest correlation coefficient, cost difference, low RMS, and high goodness of fit and enrichment factor.
Abstract: Chemical features based 3D pharmacophore models were developed for HSP90 based on the known inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. An optimal pharmacophore model was brought forth and validated using a decoy set, external test set and Fischer's randomization method. The best five features pharmacophore model, Hypo1, includes two hydrogen bond acceptors, three hydrophobic features, which has the highest correlation coefficient (0.93), cost difference (73.88), low RMS (1.24), as well as it shows a high goodness of fit and enrichment factor. Hypo1 was used as a 3D query for virtual screening to retrieve potential inhibitors from Maybridge and Scaffold databases. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to molecular docking studies and finally, 36 compounds were obtained based on consensus scoring function.
TL;DR: Sulfonamide chalcone derivatives are a new class of non-saccharide compounds that effectively inhibit glucosidases which are the major targets in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and HIV infection and to develop a pharmacophore model which would represent the critical features responsible for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
Abstract: Sulfonamide chalcone derivatives are a new class of non-saccharide compounds that effectively inhibit glucosidases which are the major targets in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and HIV infection. Our aim is to explore their binding mode of interaction at the active site by comparing with the sugar derivatives and to develop a pharmacophore model which would represent the critical features responsible for alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The homology modeled structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-glucosidase was built and used for molecular docking of non-sugar/sugar derivatives. The validated docking results projected the crucial role of NH group in the binding of sugar/non-sugar derivatives to the active site. Ligplot analyses revealed that Tyr71, and Phe177 form hydrophobic interactions with sugar/non-sugar derivatives by holding the terminal glycosidic ring mimics. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation studies were performed for protein alone and with chalcone derivative to prove its binding mechanism as shown by docking/Ligplot results. It would also help to substantiate the homology modeled structure stability. With the knowledge of the crucial interactions between ligand and protein from docking and MD simulation studies, features for pharmacophore model development were chosen. The CATALYST/HipHop was used to generate a five featured pharmacophore model with a training set of five non-sugar derivatives. As validation, all the crucial features of the model were perfectly mapped onto the 3D structures of the sugar derivatives as well as the newly tested non-sugar derivatives. Thus, it can be useful in virtual screening for finding new non-sugar derivatives as alpha-glucosidase inhibitors.
TL;DR: Findings demonstrated that FA treatment interfered with the TLR4/MD2 complex binding site, which is crucial for evoking neuroinflammation via microglia activation and inhibited NFKB likely via a JNK-dependent mechanism, which suggests a therapeutic implication for neuro inflammation-induced neurodegeneration.
Abstract: Microglia play a crucial role in the inflammatory brain response to infection. However, overactivation of microglia is neurotoxic. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in microglial activation via lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which triggers a variety of cytotoxic pro-inflammatory markers that produce deleterious effects on neuronal cells. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic compound that exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in neurodegenerative disease. However, the manner in which FA inhibits neuroinflammation-induced neurodegeneration is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of FA against LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain. First, we provide evidence that FA interferes with TLR4 interaction sites, which are required for the activation of microglia-induced neuroinflammation, and further examined the potential mechanism of its neuroprotective effects in the mouse hippocampus using molecular docking simulation and immunoblot analysis. Our results indicated that FA treatment inhibited glial cell activation, p-JNK, p-NFKB, and downstream signaling molecules, such as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β, in the mouse hippocampus and BV2 microglial cells. FA treatment strongly inhibited mitochondrial apoptotic signaling molecules, such as Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, and PARP-1, and reversed deregulated synaptic proteins, including PSD-95, synaptophysin, SNAP-25, and SNAP-23, and synaptic dysfunction in LPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrated that FA treatment interfered with the TLR4/MD2 complex binding site, which is crucial for evoking neuroinflammation via microglia activation and inhibited NFKB likely via a JNK-dependent mechanism, which suggests a therapeutic implication for neuroinflammation-induced neurodegeneration.
TL;DR: Insight is provided to elucidate the binding pattern of SIRT2 inhibitors and help in the rational structure-based design of novel Sirtuin 2 inhibitors with improved potency and better resistance profile.
Abstract: The ability to identify the site of a protein that can bind with high affinity to small, drug-like compounds has been an important goal in drug design. Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), histone deacetylase protein family, plays a central role in the regulation of various pathways. Hence, identification of drug for SIRT2 has attracted great interest in the drug discovery community. To elucidate the molecular basis of the small molecules interactions to inhibit the SIRT2 function we employed the molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and the molecular mechanism Poisson-Boltzmann/surface area (MM-PBSA) calculations. Five well know inhibitors such as suramin, mol-6, sirtinol, 67, and nf675 were selected to establish the nature of the binding mode of the inhibitors in the SIRT2 active site. The molecular docking and dynamics simulations results revealed that the hydrogen bonds between Arg97 and Gln167 are crucial to inhibit the function of SIRT2. In addition, the MM-PBSA calculations revealed that binding of inhibitors to SIRT2 is mainly driven by van der Waals/non-polar interactions. Although the five inhibitors are very different in structure, shape, and electrostatic potential, they are able to fit in the same binding pocket. These findings from this study provide insights to elucidate the binding pattern of SIRT2 inhibitors and help in the rational structure-based design of novel SIRT2 inhibitors with improved potency and better resistance profile.
TL;DR: A positive relationship between phytochrome kinase activity and photoresponses in plants is suggested and it is demonstrated that transgenic plants expressing mutant versions of AsphyA show hyposensitive responses to far-red light.
Abstract: It has been suggested that plant phytochromes are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases. However, the biochemical properties and functional roles of putative phytochrome kinase activity in plant light signalling are largely unknown. Here, we describe the biochemical and functional characterization of Avena sativa phytochrome A (AsphyA) as a potential protein kinase. We provide evidence that phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are phosphorylated by phytochromes in vitro. Domain mapping of AsphyA shows that the photosensory core region consisting of PAS-GAF-PHY domains in the N-terminal is required for the observed kinase activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic plants expressing mutant versions of AsphyA, which display reduced activity in in vitro kinase assays, show hyposensitive responses to far-red light. Further analysis reveals that far-red light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of PIF3 are significantly reduced in these transgenic plants. Collectively, these results suggest a positive relationship between phytochrome kinase activity and photoresponses in plants.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) is presented.
Abstract: Deposits of clastic carbonate-dominated (calciclastic) sedimentary slope systems in the rock record have been identified mostly as linearly-consistent carbonate apron deposits, even though most ancient clastic carbonate slope deposits fit the submarine fan systems better. Calciclastic submarine fans are consequently rarely described and are poorly understood. Subsequently, very little is known especially in mud-dominated calciclastic submarine fan systems. Presented in this study are a sedimentological core and petrographic characterisation of samples from eleven boreholes from the Lower Carboniferous of Bowland Basin (Northwest England) that reveals a >250 m thick calciturbidite complex deposited in a calciclastic submarine fan setting. Seven facies are recognised from core and thin section characterisation and are grouped into three carbonate turbidite sequences. They include: 1) Calciturbidites, comprising mostly of highto low-density, wavy-laminated bioclast-rich facies; 2) low-density densite mudstones which are characterised by planar laminated and unlaminated muddominated facies; and 3) Calcidebrites which are muddy or hyper-concentrated debrisflow deposits occurring as poorly-sorted, chaotic, mud-supported floatstones. These
10 Mar 1970
01 Aug 2000
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TL;DR: Single-molecule, real-time sequencing data obtained from a DNA polymerase performing uninterrupted template-directed synthesis using four distinguishable fluorescently labeled deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) are presented.
Abstract: We present single-molecule, real-time sequencing data obtained from a DNA polymerase performing uninterrupted template-directed synthesis using four distinguishable fluorescently labeled deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). We detected the temporal order of their enzymatic incorporation into a growing DNA strand with zero-mode waveguide nanostructure arrays, which provide optical observation volume confinement and enable parallel, simultaneous detection of thousands of single-molecule sequencing reactions. Conjugation of fluorophores to the terminal phosphate moiety of the dNTPs allows continuous observation of DNA synthesis over thousands of bases without steric hindrance. The data report directly on polymerase dynamics, revealing distinct polymerization states and pause sites corresponding to DNA secondary structure. Sequence data were aligned with the known reference sequence to assay biophysical parameters of polymerization for each template position. Consensus sequences were generated from the single-molecule reads at 15-fold coverage, showing a median accuracy of 99.3%, with no systematic error beyond fluorophore-dependent error rates.