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Khalil Najafi

Bio: Khalil Najafi is an academic researcher from University of Michigan. The author has contributed to research in topics: Wafer & Silicon. The author has an hindex of 75, co-authored 523 publications receiving 22031 citations. Previous affiliations of Khalil Najafi include Veterans Health Administration & University of California, Berkeley.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Dec 1998
TL;DR: Inertial sensors have seen a steady improvement in their performance, and today, microaccelerometers can resolve accelerations in the micro-g range, while the performance of gyroscopes has improved by a factor of 10/spl times/ every two years during the past eight years.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of silicon micromachined accelerometers and gyroscopes. Following a brief introduction to their operating principles and specifications, various device structures, fabrication, technologies, device designs, packaging, and interface electronics issues, along with the present status in the commercialization of micromachined inertial sensors, are discussed. Inertial sensors have seen a steady improvement in their performance, and today, microaccelerometers can resolve accelerations in the micro-g range, while the performance of gyroscopes has improved by a factor of 10/spl times/ every two years during the past eight years. This impressive drive to higher performance, lower cost, greater functionality, higher levels of integration, and higher volume will continue as new fabrication, circuit, and packaging techniques are developed to meet the ever increasing demand for inertial sensors.

1,816 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
08 Nov 2004
TL;DR: This paper describes the development of a high-density electronic interface to the central nervous system that permits the long-term monitoring of neural activity in vivo as well as the insertion of electronic signals into neural networks at the cellular level.
Abstract: This paper describes the development of a high-density electronic interface to the central nervous system. Silicon micromachined electrode arrays now permit the long-term monitoring of neural activity in vivo as well as the insertion of electronic signals into neural networks at the cellular level. Efforts to understand and engineer the biology of the implant/tissue interface are also underway. These electrode arrays are facilitating significant advances in our understanding of the nervous system, and merged with on-chip circuitry, signal processing, microfluidics, and wireless interfaces, they are forming the basis for a family of neural prostheses for the possible treatment of disorders such as blindness, deafness, paralysis, severe epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease.

677 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a vibrating ring gyroscope was fabricated using high aspect-ratio combined poly and single-crystal silicon MEMS technology (HARPSS), which is capable of producing electrically isolated vertical electrodes as tall as the main body structure with various size air-gaps ranging from submicron to tens of microns.
Abstract: This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of an 80-/spl mu/m-thick, 1.1 mm in diameter high aspect-ratio (20:1) polysilicon ring gyroscope (PRG). The vibrating ring gyroscope was fabricated through the high aspect-ratio combined poly and single-crystal silicon MEMS technology (HARPSS). This all-silicon single-wafer technology is capable of producing electrically isolated vertical electrodes as tall as the main body structure (50 to 100's (/spl mu/m tall)) with various size air-gaps ranging from submicron to tens of microns. A detailed analysis has been performed to determine the overall sensitivity of the vibrating ring gyroscope and identify its scaling limits. An open-loop sensitivity of 200 /spl mu/V/deg/s in a dynamic range of /spl plusmn/250 deg/s was measured under low vacuum level for a prototype device tested in hybrid format. The resolution for a PRG with a quality factor (Q) of 1200, drive amplitude of 0.15 /spl mu/m, and sense node parasitic capacitances of 2 pF was measured to be less than 1 deg/s in 1 Hz bandwidth, limited by the noise from the circuitry. Elimination of the parasitic capacitances and improvement in the quality factor of the ring structure are expected to reduce the resolution to 0.01 deg/s/(Hz)/sup 0.5/.

391 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Jun 2008
TL;DR: Lithographically defined microelectrode arrays now permit high-density recording and stimulation in the brain and are facilitating new insights into the organization and function of the central nervous system, and will soon allow more detailed mapping of neural structures than has ever before been possible.
Abstract: Lithographically defined microelectrode arrays now permit high-density recording and stimulation in the brain and are facilitating new insights into the organization and function of the central nervous system. They will soon allow more detailed mapping of neural structures than has ever before been possible, and capabilities for highly localized drug-delivery are being added for treating disorders such as severe epilepsy. For chronic neuroscience and neuroprosthesis applications, the arrays are being used in implantable microsystems that provide embedded signal processing and wireless data transmission to the outside world. A 64-channel microsystem amplifies the neural signals by 60 dB with a user-programmable bandwidth and an input-referred noise level of 8 muVrms before processing the signals digitally. The channels can be scanned at a rate of 62.5 kS/s, and signals above a user-specified biphasic threshold are transmitted wirelessly to the external world at 2 Mbps. Individual channels can also be digitized and viewed externally at high resolution to examine spike waveforms. The microsystem dissipates 14.14 mW from 1.8 V and measures 1.4 1.55 cm2.

364 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an electromagnetic (EM) vibration-to-electrical power generator for wireless sensors, which can scavenge energy from low-frequency external vibrations, is presented. But the proposed generator cannot generate enough energy for proper operation.
Abstract: This paper presents an electromagnetic (EM) vibration-to-electrical power generator for wireless sensors, which can scavenge energy from low-frequency external vibrations. For most wireless applications, the ambient vibration is generally at very low frequencies (1-100 Hz), and traditional scavenging techniques cannot generate enough energy for proper operation. The reported generator up-converts low-frequency environmental vibrations to a higher frequency through a mechanical frequency up-converter using a magnet, and hence provides more efficient energy conversion at low frequencies. Power is generated by means of EM induction using a magnet and coils on top of resonating cantilever beams. The proposed approach has been demonstrated using a macroscale version, which provides 170 nW maximum power and 6 mV maximum voltage. For the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) version, the expected maximum power and maximum voltage from a single cantilever is 3.97 muW and 76 mV, respectively, in vacuum. Power level can be increased further by using series-connected cantilevers without increasing the overall generator area, which is 4 mm2. This system provides more than an order of magnitude better energy conversion for 10-100 Hz ambient vibration range, compared to a conventional large mass/coil system.

355 citations


Cited by
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Journal Article
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON

13,333 citations

Book
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: The brain's default state: self-organized oscillations in rest and sleep, and perturbation of the default patterns by experience.
Abstract: Prelude. Cycle 1. Introduction. Cycle 2. Structure defines function. Cycle 3. Diversity of cortical functions is provided by inhibition. Cycle 4. Windows on the brain. Cycle 5. A system of rhythms: from simple to complex dynamics. Cycle 6. Synchronization by oscillation. Cycle 7. The brain's default state: self-organized oscillations in rest and sleep. Cycle 8. Perturbation of the default patterns by experience. Cycle 9. The gamma buzz: gluing by oscillations in the waking brain. Cycle 10. Perceptions and actions are brain state-dependent. Cycle 11. Oscillations in the "other cortex:" navigation in real and memory space. Cycle 12. Coupling of systems by oscillations. Cycle 13. The tough problem. References.

4,266 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Apr 2000-Science
TL;DR: An extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayersoft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials is described, to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer.
Abstract: Soft lithography is an alternative to silicon-based micromachining that uses replica molding of nontraditional elastomeric materials to fabricate stamps and microfluidic channels. We describe here an extension to the soft lithography paradigm, multilayer soft lithography, with which devices consisting of multiple layers may be fabricated from soft materials. We used this technique to build active microfluidic systems containing on-off valves, switching valves, and pumps entirely out of elastomer. The softness of these materials allows the device areas to be reduced by more than two orders of magnitude compared with silicon-based devices. The other advantages of soft lithography, such as rapid prototyping, ease of fabrication, and biocompatibility, are retained.

4,218 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive review of existing piezoelectric generators is presented in this paper, including impact coupled, resonant and human-based devices, including large scale discrete devices and wafer-scale integrated versions.
Abstract: This paper reviews the state-of-the art in vibration energy harvesting for wireless, self-powered microsystems. Vibration-powered generators are typically, although not exclusively, inertial spring and mass systems. The characteristic equations for inertial-based generators are presented, along with the specific damping equations that relate to the three main transduction mechanisms employed to extract energy from the system. These transduction mechanisms are: piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Piezoelectric generators employ active materials that generate a charge when mechanically stressed. A comprehensive review of existing piezoelectric generators is presented, including impact coupled, resonant and human-based devices. Electromagnetic generators employ electromagnetic induction arising from the relative motion between a magnetic flux gradient and a conductor. Electromagnetic generators presented in the literature are reviewed including large scale discrete devices and wafer-scale integrated versions. Electrostatic generators utilize the relative movement between electrically isolated charged capacitor plates to generate energy. The work done against the electrostatic force between the plates provides the harvested energy. Electrostatic-based generators are reviewed under the classifications of in-plane overlap varying, in-plane gap closing and out-of-plane gap closing; the Coulomb force parametric generator and electret-based generators are also covered. The coupling factor of each transduction mechanism is discussed and all the devices presented in the literature are summarized in tables classified by transduction type; conclusions are drawn as to the suitability of the various techniques.

2,834 citations