Other affiliations: University of Freiburg
Bio: Klaus Opwis is an academic researcher from University of Basel. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cognition & Usability. The author has an hindex of 39, co-authored 167 publications receiving 5457 citations. Previous affiliations of Klaus Opwis include University of Freiburg.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is suggested that in this particular study context, points, levels and leaderboards functioned as extrinsic incentives, effective only for promoting performance quantity.
Abstract: Research on the effectiveness of gamification has proliferated over the last few years, but the underlying motivational mechanisms have only recently become object of empirical research It has been suggested that when perceived as informational, gamification elements, such as points, levels and leaderboards, may afford feelings of competence and hence enhance intrinsic motivation and promote performance gains We conducted a 24 online experiment that systematically examined how points, leaderboards and levels, as well as participants' goal causality orientation influence intrinsic motivation, competence and performance (tag quantity and quality) in an image annotation task Compared to a control condition, game elements did not significantly affect competence or intrinsic motivation, irrespective of participants' causality orientation However, participants' performance did not mirror their intrinsic motivation, as points, and especially levels and leaderboard led to a significantly higher amount of tags generated compared to the control group These findings suggest that in this particular study context, points, levels and leaderboards functioned as extrinsic incentives, effective only for promoting performance quantity We experimentally studied the effects of individual game elements on motivation and performanceGamification increased the number of tags in an image annotation taskGamification did not affect intrinsic motivation or competence need satisfactionLack of motivational effects likely due to the way gamification was implementedResults suggest that in the given context game elements acted as extrinsic incentives
TL;DR: The FSMC is a new scale that has undergone validation based on a large sample of patients and that provides differential quantification and graduation of cognitive and motor fatigue.
Abstract: Fatigue symptoms are reported by a majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Reliable assessment, however, is a demanding issue as the symptoms are experienced subjectively and as objective assessment strategies are missing. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new tool, the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC), for the assessment of MS-related cognitive and motor fatigue. A total of 309 MS patients and 147 healthy controls were included into the validation study. The FSMC was tested against several external criteria (e.g. cognition, motivation, personality and other fatigue scales). The item-analysis and validation procedure showed that the FSMC is highly sensitive and specific in detecting fatigued MS patients, that both subscales significantly differentiated between patients and controls (p 0.91) as well as test-retest reliability (r > 0.80) were high. Cut-off values were determined to classify patients as mildly, moderately or severely fatigued. In conclusion, the FSMC is a new scale that has undergone validation based on a large sample of patients and that provides differential quantification and graduation of cognitive and motor fatigue.
02 Oct 2013
TL;DR: It is suggested that points, levels and leaderboards by themselves neither make nor break users' intrinsic motivation in non-game contexts, and it is assumed that they act as progress indicators, guiding and enhancing user performance.
Abstract: It is heavily debated within the gamification community whether specific game elements may actually undermine users' intrinsic motivation. This online experiment examined the effects of three commonly employed game design elements -- points, leaderboard, levels -- on users' performance, intrinsic motivation, perceived autonomy and competence in an image annotation task. Implementation of these game elements significantly increased performance, but did not affect perceived autonomy, competence or intrinsic motivation. Our findings suggest that points, levels and leaderboards by themselves neither make nor break users' intrinsic motivation in non-game contexts. Instead, it is assumed that they act as progress indicators, guiding and enhancing user performance. While more research on the contextual factors that may potentially mediate the effects of game elements on intrinsic motivation is required, it seems that the implementation of points, levels, and leaderboards is a viable means to promote specific user behavior in non-game contexts.
01 Sep 2009-International Journal of Human-computer Studies \/ International Journal of Man-machine Studies
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that visual complexity of websites has multiple effects on human cognition and emotion, including experienced pleasure and arousal, facial expression, autonomic nervous system activation, task performance, and memory, and it should thus be considered an important factor in website design.
Abstract: Visual complexity is an apparent feature in website design yet its effects on cognitive and emotional processing are not well understood. The current study examined website complexity within the framework of aesthetic theory and psychophysiological research on cognition and emotion. We hypothesized that increasing the complexity of websites would have a detrimental cognitive and emotional impact on users. In a passive viewing task (PVT) 36 website screenshots differing in their degree of complexity (operationalized by JPEG file size; correlation with complexity ratings in a preliminary study r=.80) were presented to 48 participants in randomized order. Additionally, a standardized visual search task (VST) assessing reaction times, and a one-week-delayed recognition task on these websites were conducted and participants rated all websites for arousal and valence. Psychophysiological responses were assessed during the PVT and VST. Visual complexity was related to increased experienced arousal, more negative valence appraisal, decreased heart rate, and increased facial muscle tension (musculus corrugator). Visual complexity resulted in increased reaction times in the VST and decreased recognition rates. Reaction times in the VST were related to increases in heart rate and electrodermal activity. These findings demonstrate that visual complexity of websites has multiple effects on human cognition and emotion, including experienced pleasure and arousal, facial expression, autonomic nervous system activation, task performance, and memory. It should thus be considered an important factor in website design.
TL;DR: The results indicate that the user's affective experience with the usability of the shop might serve as a mediator variable within the aesthetics-usability relation: the frustration of poor usability lowers ratings on perceived aesthetics.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the relation between usability and aesthetics. In a laboratory study, 80 participants used one of four different versions of the same online shop, differing in interface-aesthetics (low vs. high) and interface-usability (low vs. high). Participants had to find specific items and rate the shop before and after usage on perceived aesthetics and perceived usability, which were assessed using four validated instruments. Results show that aesthetics does not affect perceived usability. In contrast, usability has an effect on post-use perceived aesthetics. Our findings show that the ''what is beautiful is usable'' notion, which assumes that aesthetics enhances the perception of usability can be reversed under certain conditions (here: strong usability manipulation combined with a medium to large aesthetics manipulation). Furthermore, our results indicate that the user's affective experience with the usability of the shop might serve as a mediator variable within the aesthetics-usability relation: The frustration of poor usability lowers ratings on perceived aesthetics. The significance of the results is discussed in context of the existing research on the relation between aesthetics and usability.
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
01 Jan 1964
TL;DR: In this paper, the notion of a collective unconscious was introduced as a theory of remembering in social psychology, and a study of remembering as a study in Social Psychology was carried out.
Abstract: Part I. Experimental Studies: 2. Experiment in psychology 3. Experiments on perceiving III Experiments on imaging 4-8. Experiments on remembering: (a) The method of description (b) The method of repeated reproduction (c) The method of picture writing (d) The method of serial reproduction (e) The method of serial reproduction picture material 9. Perceiving, recognizing, remembering 10. A theory of remembering 11. Images and their functions 12. Meaning Part II. Remembering as a Study in Social Psychology: 13. Social psychology 14. Social psychology and the matter of recall 15. Social psychology and the manner of recall 16. Conventionalism 17. The notion of a collective unconscious 18. The basis of social recall 19. A summary and some conclusions.
TL;DR: The increased use of neuroimaging techniques in patients with MS has advanced the understanding of structural and functional changes in the brain that are characteristic of this disease, although much remains to be learned.
Abstract: Summary Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the CNS that is characterised by widespread lesions in the brain and spinal cord. MS results in motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric symptoms, all of which can occur independently of one another. The common cognitive symptoms include deficits in complex attention, efficiency of information processing, executive functioning, processing speed, and long-term memory. These deficits detrimentally affect many aspects of daily life, such as the ability to run a household, participate fully in society, and maintain employment—factors that can all affect the overall quality of life of the patient. The increased use of neuroimaging techniques in patients with MS has advanced our understanding of structural and functional changes in the brain that are characteristic of this disease, although much remains to be learned. Moreover, examination of efforts to treat the cognitive deficits in MS is still in the early stages.
TL;DR: It is concluded that memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize, and cast doubt on both the clinical relevance of working memory training Programs and their utility as methods of enhancing cognitive functioning in typically developing children and healthy adults.
Abstract: It has been suggested that working memory training programs are effective both as treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other cognitive disorders in children and as a tool to improve cognitive ability and scholastic attainment in typically developing children and adults. However, effects across studies appear to be variable, and a systematic meta-analytic review was undertaken. To be included in the review, studies had to be randomized controlled trials or quasi-experiments without randomization, have a treatment, and have either a treated group or an untreated control group. Twenty-three studies with 30 group comparisons met the criteria for inclusion. The studies included involved clinical samples and samples of typically developing children and adults. Meta-analyses indicated that the programs produced reliable short-term improvements in working memory skills. For verbal working memory, these near-transfer effects were not sustained at follow-up, whereas for visuospatial working memory, limited evidence suggested that such effects might be maintained. More importantly, there was no convincing evidence of the generalization of working memory training to other skills (nonverbal and verbal ability, inhibitory processes in attention, word decoding, and arithmetic). The authors conclude that memory training programs appear to produce short-term, specific training effects that do not generalize. Possible limitations of the review (including age differences in the samples and the variety of different clinical conditions included) are noted. However, current findings cast doubt on both the clinical relevance of working memory training programs and their utility as methods of enhancing cognitive functioning in typically developing children and healthy adults.