Bio: Krishna Pramanik is an academic researcher from National Institute of Technology, Rourkela. The author has contributed to research in topics: Fibroin & Bone tissue. The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 105 publications receiving 4389 citations. Previous affiliations of Krishna Pramanik include Department of Biotechnology & Techno India.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of temperature on the viscosity of biodiesel and jatropha oil was studied and the performance of a single cylinder C.I. engine using blends of varying proportions of Jatropha curcas oil and diesel was evaluated.
Abstract: In the present investigation the high viscosity of the jatropha curcas oil which has been considered as a potential alternative fuel for the compression ignition (C.I.) engine was decreased by blending with diesel. The blends of varying proportions of jatropha curcas oil and diesel were prepared, analyzed and compared with diesel fuel. The effect of temperature on the viscosity of biodiesel and jatropha oil was also studied. The performance of the engine using blends and jatropha oil was evaluated in a single cylinder C.I. engine and compared with the performance obtained with diesel. Significant improvement in engine performance was observed compared to vegetable oil alone. The specific fuel consumption and the exhaust gas temperature were reduced due to decrease in viscosity of the vegetable oil. Acceptable thermal efficiencies of the engine were obtained with blends containing up to 50% volume of jatropha oil. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that 40–50% of jatropha oil can be substituted for diesel without any engine modification and preheating of the blends.
TL;DR: The data indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.
Abstract: Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10-20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (<50 μM) has insignificant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.
TL;DR: Citation Soleymaninejadian E, Pramanik K, Samadian E. Immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells: cytokines and factors.
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are defined as undifferentiated cells that are capable of self renewal and differentiation into several cell types such as chondrocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, myocyte, hepatocyte, and neuron-like cells. MSC can be isolated from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, adipose tissue, placenta, periosteum, trabecular bone, synovium, skeletal muscle, and deciduous teeth. Immunomodulatory of MSCs is one of the important issues nowadays, because this aspect can be clinically applied for graft-versus-host and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we tried to discuss in detail about cytokines and factors such as members of the transforming growth factor superfamily (transforming growth factor-β), hepatic growth factors (HGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), IL-10, indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), nitric oxide (NO), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) that are involved in immunomodulatory of MSCs.
TL;DR: The current review provides a good insight on mucocoadhesive polymers, the phenomenon of mucoadhesion and the factors which have the ability to affect the muco adhesion properties of a polymer.
Abstract: Bioadhesion can be defined as the process by which a natural or a synthetic polymer can adhere to a biological substrate. When the biological substrate is a mucosal layer then the phenomena is known as mucoadhesion. The substrate possessing bioadhesive property can help in devising a delivery system capable of delivering a bioactive agent for a prolonged period of time at a specific delivery site. The current review provides a good insight on mucoadhesive polymers, the phenomenon of mucoadhesion and the factors which have the ability to affect the mucoadhesive properties of a polymer.
TL;DR: Cytotoxicity data, nuclear condensation-fragmentation and apoptosis analysis together confirmed the therapeutic potential of the CA-CMC formulations and they can be used for colon-specific drug delivery.
Abstract: The present study delineates preparation, characterization and application of calcium alginate (CA)-carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) beads for colon-specific oral drug delivery. Here, we exploited pH responsive swelling, mucoadhesivity and colonic microflora-catered biodegradability of the formulations for colon-specific drug delivery. The CA-CMC beads were prepared by ionic gelation method and its physicochemical characterization was done by SEM, XRD, EDAX, DSC and texture analyzer. The swelling and mucoadhesivity of the beads was found higher at the simulated colonic environment. Variation was more prominent in compositions with lower CMC concentrations. CA-CMC formulations degraded slowly in simulated colonic fluid, however the degradation rate increased drastically in the presence of colonic microflora. In vitro release study of anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) showed a release (>90%) in the presence of colonic enzymes. A critical analysis of drug release profile along with FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) study revealed that the presence of CMC in the formulation retarded the release rate of 5-FU. 5-FU-loaded formulations were tested against colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Cytotoxicity data, nuclear condensation-fragmentation and apoptosis analysis (by flow cytometry) together confirmed the therapeutic potential of the CA-CMC formulations. In conclusion, CA-CMC beads can be used for colon-specific drug delivery.
TL;DR: An updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules is presented.
Abstract: Nanomedicine and nano delivery systems are a relatively new but rapidly developing science where materials in the nanoscale range are employed to serve as means of diagnostic tools or to deliver therapeutic agents to specific targeted sites in a controlled manner Nanotechnology offers multiple benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site-specific, and target-oriented delivery of precise medicines Recently, there are a number of outstanding applications of the nanomedicine (chemotherapeutic agents, biological agents, immunotherapeutic agents etc) in the treatment of various diseases The current review, presents an updated summary of recent advances in the field of nanomedicines and nano based drug delivery systems through comprehensive scrutiny of the discovery and application of nanomaterials in improving both the efficacy of novel and old drugs (eg, natural products) and selective diagnosis through disease marker molecules The opportunities and challenges of nanomedicines in drug delivery from synthetic/natural sources to their clinical applications are also discussed In addition, we have included information regarding the trends and perspectives in nanomedicine area
TL;DR: In this article, a review of the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries is presented.
Abstract: The increasing industrialization and motorization of the world has led to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum-based fuels. Petroleum-based fuels are obtained from limited reserves. These finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these resources are facing energy/foreign exchange crisis, mainly due to the import of crude petroleum. Hence, it is necessary to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from resources available locally within the country such as alcohol, biodiesel, vegetable oils etc. This paper reviews the production, characterization and current statuses of vegetable oil and biodiesel as well as the experimental research work carried out in various countries. This paper touches upon well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, engine performance and emissions, effect on wear, lubricating oil etc. Ethanol is also an attractive alternative fuel because it is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression-ignition engines. In this review, the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel and gasoline fuel are also discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. The effect of the fuel on engine performance and emissions (SI as well as compression ignition (CI) engines), and material compatibility is also considered. Biodiesel is methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acid made from virgin or used vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main resources for biodiesel production can be non-edible oils obtained from plant species such as Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot), Pongamia pinnata (Karanj), Calophyllum inophyllum (Nagchampa), Hevca brasiliensis (Rubber) etc. Biodiesel can be blended in any proportion with mineral diesel to create a biodiesel blend or can be used in its pure form. Just like petroleum diesel, biodiesel operates in compression ignition (diesel) engine, and essentially require very little or no engine modifications because biodiesel has properties similar to mineral diesel. It can be stored just like mineral diesel and hence does not require separate infrastructure. The use of biodiesel in conventional diesel engines result in substantial reduction in emission of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate. This review focuses on performance and emission of biodiesel in CI engines, combustion analysis, wear performance on long-term engine usage, and economic feasibility.
TL;DR: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) become synthetic machines that produce many different tumour components and have a role in creating extracellular matrix structure and metabolic and immune reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment with an impact on adaptive resistance to chemotherapy.
Abstract: Cancer is associated with fibroblasts at all stages of disease progression. This Review discusses the pleiotropic actions of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on tumour cells and postulates that they are likely to be a heterogeneous and plastic population of cells in the tumour microenvironment. Among all cells, fibroblasts could be considered the cockroaches of the human body. They survive severe stress that is usually lethal to all other cells, and they are the only normal cell type that can be live-cultured from post-mortem and decaying tissue. Their resilient adaptation may reside in their intrinsic survival programmes and cellular plasticity. Cancer is associated with fibroblasts at all stages of disease progression, including metastasis, and they are a considerable component of the general host response to tissue damage caused by cancer cells. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) become synthetic machines that produce many different tumour components. CAFs have a role in creating extracellular matrix (ECM) structure and metabolic and immune reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment with an impact on adaptive resistance to chemotherapy. The pleiotropic actions of CAFs on tumour cells are probably reflective of them being a heterogeneous and plastic population with context-dependent influence on cancer.
TL;DR: This work aims to provide a comprehensive overview of electrospun nanofibers, including the principle, methods, materials, and applications, and highlights the most relevant and recent advances related to the applications by focusing on the most representative examples.
Abstract: Electrospinning is a versatile and viable technique for generating ultrathin fibers. Remarkable progress has been made with regard to the development of electrospinning methods and engineering of electrospun nanofibers to suit or enable various applications. We aim to provide a comprehensive overview of electrospinning, including the principle, methods, materials, and applications. We begin with a brief introduction to the early history of electrospinning, followed by discussion of its principle and typical apparatus. We then discuss its renaissance over the past two decades as a powerful technology for the production of nanofibers with diversified compositions, structures, and properties. Afterward, we discuss the applications of electrospun nanofibers, including their use as "smart" mats, filtration membranes, catalytic supports, energy harvesting/conversion/storage components, and photonic and electronic devices, as well as biomedical scaffolds. We highlight the most relevant and recent advances related to the applications of electrospun nanofibers by focusing on the most representative examples. We also offer perspectives on the challenges, opportunities, and new directions for future development. At the end, we discuss approaches to the scale-up production of electrospun nanofibers and briefly discuss various types of commercial products based on electrospun nanofibers that have found widespread use in our everyday life.
01 Jan 2010