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Krishnendu Acharya

Bio: Krishnendu Acharya is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Antioxidant & DPPH. The author has an hindex of 37, co-authored 295 publications receiving 5719 citations. Previous affiliations of Krishnendu Acharya include Darjeeling Government College & Jadavpur University.
Topics: Antioxidant, DPPH, Ascorbic acid, Medicine, Mushroom

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TL;DR: The pathogen was identified as Alternaria dianthicola and further confirmed by the Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, India and was consistently reisolated from inoculated plants.
Abstract: Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a potential medicinal plant used for the treatment of nervous disorders, intestinal infection, leprosy, and cancer, is a perennial herb belonging to Solanaceae and distributed throughout the drier parts of India. Leaf blight disease of this plant generally occurs during March in various districts of South Bengal, India. At the initial stage of infection, symptoms appear as small, light brown spots, gradually becoming irregular, dark brown, concentrically zonate with a diffuse margin, frequently surrounded by light yellow haloes, conspicuous brownish concentric rings in the advance stage of infection. A species of Alternaria was isolated from the lesions. The pathogen was isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. On PDA, the fungus grew slowly with colonies reaching approximately 35 to 40 mm in diameter in 7 days when incubated at 30°C. Conidiophores arose singly or in groups, straight or flexous, cylindrical, septate, pale to olivaceous brown, as much as 155 μm long, 4 t...

695 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that CNP may be used as a more effective phytosanitary or disease control agent compared to natural chitosan for sustainable organic cultivation.
Abstract: The immunomodulatory role of the natural biopolymer, chitosan, has already been demonstrated in plants, whilst its nanoparticles have only been examined for biomedical applications. In our present study, we have investigated the possible ability and mechanism of chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) to induce and augment immune responses in plants. CNP-treatment of leaves produced significant improvement in the plant's innate immune response through induction of defense enzyme activity, upregulation of defense related genes including that of several antioxidant enzymes as well as elevation of the levels of total phenolics. It is also possible that the extracellular localization of CNP may also play a role in the observed upregulation of defense response in plants. Nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule in plant defense, was also observed to increase following CNP treatment. However, such CNP-mediated immuno-stimulation was significantly mitigated when NO production was inhibited, indicating a possible role of NO in such immune induction. Taken together, our results suggest that CNP may be used as a more effective phytosanitary or disease control agent compared to natural chitosan for sustainable organic cultivation.

245 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The antimicrobial activity of as synthesized silver nanoparticles is tested against the bacteria, Bacilli subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

224 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from EUCalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucallyptigena from EucalyPTus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella gaelicola eucaliptorum from Eukalyptu pellitas, Pilidiellarina euc
Abstract: Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Malaysia: Castanediella eucalypti from Eucalyptus pellita, Codinaea acacia from Acacia mangium, Emarcea eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana, Myrtapenidiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus pellita, Pilidiella eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus brassiana and Strelitziana malaysiana from Acacia mangium. Furthermore, Stachybotrys sansevieriicola is described from Sansevieria ehrenbergii (Tanzania), Phacidium grevilleae from Grevillea robusta (Uganda), Graphium jumulu from Adansonia gregorii and Ophiostoma eucalyptigena from Eucalyptus marginata (Australia), Pleurophoma ossicola from bone and Plectosphaerella populi from Populus nigra (Germany), Colletotrichum neosansevieriae from Sansevieria trifasciata, Elsinoe othonnae from Othonna quinquedentata and Zeloasperisporium cliviae (Zeloasperisporiaceae fam. nov.) from Clivia sp. (South Africa), Neodevriesia pakbiae, Phaeophleospora hymenocallidis and Phaeophleospora hymenocallidicola on leaves of a fern (Thailand), Melanconium elaeidicola from Elaeis guineensis (Indonesia), Hormonema viticola from Vitis vinifera (Canary Islands), Chlorophyllum pseudoglobossum from a grassland (India), Triadelphia disseminata from an immunocompromised patient (Saudi Arabia), Colletotrichum abscissum from Citrus (Brazil), Polyschema sclerotigenum and Phialemonium limoniforme from human patients (USA), Cadophora viticola from Vitis vinifera (Spain), Entoloma flavovelutinum and Bolbitius aurantiorugosus from soil (Vietnam), Rhizopogon granuloflavus from soil (Cape Verde Islands), Tulasnella eremophila from Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus (Morocco), Verrucostoma martinicensis from Danaea elliptica (French West Indies), Metschnikowia colchici from Colchicum autumnale (Bulgaria), Thelebolus microcarpus from soil (Argentina) and Ceratocystis adelpha from Theobroma cacao (Ecuador). Myrmecridium iridis (Myrmecridiales ord. nov., Myrmecridiaceae fam. nov.) is also described from Iris sp. (The Netherlands). Novel genera include (Ascomycetes): Budhanggurabania from Cynodon dactylon (Australia), Soloacrosporiella, Xenocamarosporium, Neostrelitziana and Castanediella from Acacia mangium and Sabahriopsis from Eucalyptus brassiana (Malaysia), Readerielliopsis from basidiomata of Fuscoporia wahlbergii (French Guyana), Neoplatysporoides from Aloe ferox (Tanzania), Wojnowiciella, Chrysofolia and Neoeriomycopsis from Eucalyptus (Colombia), Neophaeomoniella from Eucalyptus globulus (USA), Pseudophaeomoniella from Olea europaea (Italy), Paraphaeomoniella from Encephalartos altensteinii, Aequabiliella, Celerioriella and Minutiella from Prunus (South Africa). Tephrocybella (Basidiomycetes) represents a novel genus from wood (Italy). Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.

177 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Pedro W. Crous1, Pedro W. Crous2, Michael J. Wingfield2, David M. Richardson3, J.J. Le Roux3, Dominique Strasberg4, Jacqueline Edwards5, Francois Roets3, Vit Hubka6, Paul J. Taylor7, M. Heykoop8, María P. Martín9, Gabriel Moreno8, Deanna A. Sutton10, Nathan P. Wiederhold10, C. W. Barnes, J. R. Carlavilla8, Josepa Gené11, Alejandra Giraldo1, Alejandra Giraldo2, Vladimiro Guarnaccia1, Josep Guarro11, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo2, Margarita Hernández-Restrepo1, Miroslav Kolařík12, José Luis Manjón8, I.G. Pascoe5, E. S. Popov13, Marcelo Sandoval-Denis11, J.H.C. Woudenberg1, Krishnendu Acharya14, A. V. Alexandrova15, Pablo Alvarado, Renan do Nascimento Barbosa16, Iuri Goulart Baseia17, Robert A. Blanchette18, T. Boekhout2, Treena I. Burgess19, J. F. Cano-Lira11, Adéla Čmoková6, Roumen Dimitrov20, M. Yu. Dyakov15, Margarita Dueñas9, Arun Kumar Dutta14, Fernando Esteve-Raventós8, A. G. Fedosova13, Jacques Fournier, P. Gamboa21, D.E. Gouliamova22, Tine Grebenc, Marizeth Groenewald1, B. Hanse23, G.E.St.J. Hardy19, Benjamin W. Held18, Jurjević, Tharnrat Kaewgrajang24, K. P. D. Latha25, Lorenzo Lombard1, J. Jennifer Luangsa-ard26, Pavlina Lyskova, N. Mallatova, Patinjareveettil Manimohan25, Andrew N. Miller27, M. Mirabolfathy, O. V. Morozova13, Mary Obodai28, Neiva Tinti de Oliveira16, M.E. Ordoñez29, E. C. Otto18, S. Paloi3, S. Paloi1, Stephen W. Peterson30, Cherdchai Phosri31, Jolanda Roux2, W. A. Salazar29, A. Sánchez8, G. A. Sarria, Hyeon Dong Shin32, Bianca Denise Barbosa da Silva17, Gladstone Alves da Silva16, M.Th. Smith1, Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta, Alberto M. Stchigel11, Margarita Stoilova-Disheva22, Marcelo Aloisio Sulzbacher33, M.T. Telleria9, C. Toapanta29, J. M. Traba, N. Valenzuela-Lopez11, N. Valenzuela-Lopez34, Roy Watling, Johannes Z. Groenewald1 
TL;DR: Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis, Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eUCalyptorum.
Abstract: Novel species of fungi described in the present study include the following from Australia: Vermiculariopsiella eucalypti, Mulderomyces natalis (incl. Mulderomyces gen. nov.), Fusicladium paraamoenum, Neotrimmatostroma paraexcentricum, and Pseudophloeospora eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus spp., Anungitea grevilleae (on leaves of Grevillea sp.), Pyrenochaeta acaciae (on leaves of Acacia sp.), and Brunneocarpos banksiae (incl. Brunneocarpos gen. nov.) on cones of Banksia attenuata. Novel foliicolous taxa from South Africa include Neosulcatispora strelitziae (on Strelitzia nicolai), Colletotrichum ledebouriae (on Ledebouria floridunda), Cylindrosympodioides brabejum (incl. Cylindrosympodioides gen. nov.) on Brabejum stellatifolium, Sclerostagonospora ericae (on Erica sp.), Setophoma cyperi (on Cyperus sphaerocephala), and Phaeosphaeria breonadiae (on Breonadia microcephala). Novelties described from Robben Island (South Africa) include Wojnowiciella cissampeli and Diaporthe cissampeli (both on Cissampelos capensis), Phaeotheca salicorniae (on Salicornia meyeriana), Paracylindrocarpon aloicola (incl. Paracylindrocarpon gen. nov.) on Aloe sp., and Libertasomyces myopori (incl. Libertasomyces gen. nov.) on Myoporum serratum. Several novelties are recorded from La Reunion (France), namely Phaeosphaeriopsis agapanthi (on Agapanthus sp.), Roussoella solani (on Solanum mauritianum), Vermiculariopsiella acaciae (on Acacia heterophylla), Dothiorella acacicola (on Acacia mearnsii), Chalara clidemiae (on Clidemia hirta), Cytospora tibouchinae (on Tibouchina semidecandra), Diaporthe ocoteae (on Ocotea obtusata), Castanediella eucalypticola, Phaeophleospora eucalypticola and Fusicladium eucalypticola (on Eucalyptus robusta), Lareunionomyces syzygii (incl. Lareunionomyces gen. nov.) and Parawiesneriomyces syzygii (incl. Parawiesneriomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium jambos. Novel taxa from the USA include Meristemomyces arctostaphylos (on Arctostaphylos patula), Ochroconis dracaenae (on Dracaena reflexa), Rasamsonia columbiensis (air of a hotel conference room), Paecilomyces tabacinus (on Nicotiana tabacum), Toxicocladosporium hominis (from human broncoalveolar lavage fluid), Nothophoma macrospora (from respiratory secretion of a patient with pneumonia), and Penidiellopsis radicularis (incl. Penidiellopsis gen. nov.) from a human nail. Novel taxa described from Malaysia include Prosopidicola albizziae (on Albizzia falcataria), Proxipyricularia asari (on Asarum sp.), Diaporthe passifloricola (on Passiflora foetida), Paramycoleptodiscus albizziae (incl. Paramycoleptodiscus gen. nov.) on Albizzia falcataria, and Malaysiasca phaii (incl. Malaysiasca gen. nov.) on Phaius reflexipetalus. Two species are newly described from human patients in the Czech Republic, namely Microascus longicollis (from toenails of patient with suspected onychomycosis), and Chrysosporium echinulatum (from sole skin of patient). Furthermore, Alternaria quercicola is described on leaves of Quercus brantii (Iran), Stemphylium beticola on leaves of Beta vulgaris (The Netherlands), Scleroderma capeverdeanum on soil (Cape Verde Islands), Scleroderma dunensis on soil, and Blastobotrys meliponae from bee honey (Brazil), Ganoderma mbrekobenum on angiosperms (Ghana), Geoglossum raitviirii and Entoloma kruticianum on soil (Russia), Priceomyces vitoshaensis on Pterostichus melas (Carabidae) (Bulgaria) is the only one for which the family is listed, Ganoderma ecuadoriense on decaying wood (Ecuador), Thyrostroma cornicola on Cornus officinalis (Korea), Cercophora vinosa on decorticated branch of Salix sp. (France), Coprinus pinetorum, Coprinus littoralis and Xerocomellus poederi on soil (Spain). Two new genera from Colombia include Helminthosporiella and Uwemyces on leaves of Elaeis oleifera. Two species are described from India, namely Russula intervenosa (ectomycorrhizal with Shorea robusta), and Crinipellis odorata (on bark of Mytragyna parviflora). Novelties from Thailand include Cyphellophora gamsii (on leaf litter), Pisolithus aureosericeus and Corynascus citrinus (on soil). Two species are newly described from Citrus in Italy, namely Dendryphiella paravinosa on Citrus sinensis, and Ramularia citricola on Citrus floridana. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS nrDNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.

172 citations

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TL;DR: This volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of the instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented.
Abstract: I read this book the same weekend that the Packers took on the Rams, and the experience of the latter event, obviously, colored my judgment. Although I abhor anything that smacks of being a handbook (like, \"How to Earn a Merit Badge in Neurosurgery\") because too many volumes in biomedical science already evince a boyscout-like approach, I must confess that parts of this volume are fast, scholarly, and significant, with certain reservations. I like parts of this well-illustrated book because Dr. Sj6strand, without so stating, develops certain subjects on technique in relation to the acquisition of judgment and sophistication. And this is important! So, given that the author (like all of us) is somewhat deficient in some areas, and biased in others, the book is still valuable if the uninitiated reader swallows it in a general fashion, realizing full well that what will be required from the reader is a modulation to fit his vision, propreception, adaptation and response, and the kind of problem he is undertaking. A major deficiency of this book is revealed by comparison of its use of physics and of chemistry to provide understanding and background for the application of high resolution electron microscopy to problems in biology. Since the volume is keyed to high resolution electron microscopy, which is a sophisticated form of structural analysis, but really morphology in a modern guise, the physical and mechanical background of The instrument and its ancillary tools are simply and well presented. The potential use of chemical or cytochemical information as it relates to biological fine structure , however, is quite deficient. I wonder when even sophisticated morphol-ogists will consider fixation a reaction and not a technique; only then will the fundamentals become self-evident and predictable and this sine qua flon will become less mystical. Staining reactions (the most inadequate chapter) ought to be something more than a technique to selectively enhance contrast of morphological elements; it ought to give the structural addresses of some of the chemical residents of cell components. Is it pertinent that auto-radiography gets singled out for more complete coverage than other significant aspects of cytochemistry by a high resolution microscopist, when it has a built-in minimal error of 1,000 A in standard practice? I don't mean to blind-side (in strict football terminology) Dr. Sj6strand's efforts for what is \"routinely used in our laboratory\"; what is done is usually well done. It's just that …

3,197 citations

01 Jan 1944
TL;DR: The only previously known species of Myrsidea from bulbuls, M. warwicki ex Ixos philippinus, is redescribed and sixteen new species are described; they and their type hosts are described.
Abstract: We redescribe the only previously known species of Myrsidea from bulbuls, M. pycnonoti Eichler. Sixteen new species are described; they and their type hosts are: M. phillipsi ex Pycnonotus goiavier goiavier (Scopoli), M. gieferi ex P. goiavier suluensis Mearns, M. kulpai ex P. flavescens Blyth, M. finlaysoni ex P. finlaysoni Strickland, M. kathleenae ex P. cafer (L.), M. warwicki ex Ixos philippinus (J. R. Forster), M. mcclurei ex Microscelis amaurotis (Temminck), M. zeylanici ex P. zeylanicus (Gmelin), M. plumosi ex P. plumosus Blyth, M. eutiloti ex P. eutilotus (Jardine and Selby), M. adamsae ex P. urostictus (Salvadori), M. ochracei ex Criniger ochraceus F. Moore, M. borbonici ex Hypsipetes borbonicus (J. R. Forster), M. johnsoni ex P. atriceps (Temminck), M. palmai ex C. ochraceus, and M. claytoni ex P. eutilotus. A key is provided for the identification of these 17 species.

1,756 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Internal Organization of the Plant Body, from embryo to the Adult Plant, and some Factors in Development of Secondary Xylem: Common Types of Secondary Growth.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION. Internal Organization of the Plant Body. Summary of Types of Cells and Tissues. General References. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEED PLANT. The Embryo. From embryo to the Adult Plant. Apical Meristems and Their Derivatives. Differentiation, Specialization, and Morphogenesis. References. THE CELL. Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Plastids. Mitochondria. Microbodies. Vacuoles. Paramural Bodies. Ribosomes. Dictyosomes. Endoplasmic Reticulum. Lipid Globules. Microtubules. Ergastic Substances. References. CELL WALL. Macromolecular Components and Their Organization in the Wall. Cell Wall Layers. Intercellular Spaces. Pits, Primary Pit--Fields, and Plasmodesmata. Origin of Cell Wall During Cell Division. Growth of Cell Wall. References. PARENCHYMA AND COLLENCHYMA. Parenchyma. Collenchyma. References. SCLERENCHYMA. Sclereids. Fibers. Development of Sclereids and Fibers. References. EPIDERMIS. Composition. Developmental Aspects. Cell Wall. Stomata. Trichomes. References. XYLEM: GENERAL STRUCTURE AND CELL TYPES. Gross Structure of Secondary Xylem. Cell Types in the Secondary Xylem. Primary Xylem. Differentiation of Tracheary Elements. References. XYLEM: VARIATION IN WOOD STRUCTURE. Conifer Wood. Dicotyledon Wood. Some Factors in Development of Secondary Xylem. Identification of Wood. References. VASCULAR CAMBIUM. Organization of Cambium. Developmental Changes in the Initial Layer. Patterns and Causal Relations in Cambial Activity. References. PHLOEM. Cell Types. Primary Phloem. Secondary Phloem. References. PERIDERM. Structure of Periderm and Related Tissues. Development of Periderm. Outer Aspect of Bark in Relation to Structure. Lenticels. References. SECRETORY STRUCTURES. External Secretory Structures. Internal Secretory Structures. References. THE ROOT: PRIMARY STATE OF GROWTH. Types of Roots. Primary Structure. Development. References. THE ROOT: SECONDARY STATE OF GROWTH AND ADVENTITIOUS ROOTS. Common Types of Secondary Growth. Variations in Secondary Growths. Physiologic Aspects of Secondary Growth in Roots. Adventitious Roots. References. THE STEM: PRIMARY STATE OF GROWTH. External Morphology. Primary Structure. Development. References. THE STEM: SECONDARY GROWTH AND STRUCTURAL TYPES. Secondary Growth. Types of Stems. References. THE LEAF: BASIC STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT. Morphology. Histology of Angiosperm Leaf. Development. Abscission. References. THE LEAF: VARIATIONS IN STRUCTURE. Leaf Structure and Environment. Dicotyledon Leaves. Monocotyledon Leaves. Gymnosperm Leaves. References. THE FLOWER: STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT. Concept. Structure. Development. References. THE FLOWER: REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE. Microsporogenesis. Pollen. Male Gametophyte. Megasporogenesis. Female Gametophyte. Fertilization. References. THE FRUIT. Concept and Classification. The Fruit Wall. Fruit Types. Fruit Growths. Fruit Abscission. References. THE SEED. Concept and Morphology. Seed Development. Seed Coat. Nutrient Storage Tissues. References. EMBRYO AND SEEDLING. Mature Embryo. Development of Embryo. Classification of Embryos. Seedling. References. Glossary. Index.

1,454 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: An overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis is presented to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries.
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis. The aim of this review article is, therefore, to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries.

1,141 citations