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Kristie J. Koski

Bio: Kristie J. Koski is an academic researcher from University of California, Davis. The author has contributed to research in topics: Intercalation (chemistry) & Phonon. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 58 publications receiving 4415 citations. Previous affiliations of Kristie J. Koski include Stanford University & University of Wyoming.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This communication presents a synthesis process to grow MoS2 and MoSe2 thin films with vertically aligned layers, thereby maximally exposing the edges on the film surface, and confirmed their catalytic activity in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), in which the exchange current density correlates directly with the density of the exposed edge sites.
Abstract: Layered materials consist of molecular layers stacked together by weak interlayer interactions. They often crystallize to form atomically smooth thin films, nanotubes, and platelet or fullerene-like nanoparticles due to the anisotropic bonding. Structures that predominately expose edges of the layers exhibit high surface energy and are often considered unstable. In this communication, we present a synthesis process to grow MoS2 and MoSe2 thin films with vertically aligned layers, thereby maximally exposing the edges on the film surface. Such edge-terminated films are metastable structures of MoS2 and MoSe2, which may find applications in diverse catalytic reactions. We have confirmed their catalytic activity in a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), in which the exchange current density correlates directly with the density of the exposed edge sites.

1,976 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the ternary sesquichalcogenide (Bi(x)Sb(1-x))2Te3 is shown to be a tunable topological insulator system by tuning the ratio of bismuth to antimony.
Abstract: Topological insulators exhibit a bulk energy gap and spin-polarized surface states that lead to unique electronic properties, with potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. However, transport measurements have typically been dominated by residual bulk charge carriers originating from crystal defects or environmental doping, and these mask the contribution of surface carriers to charge transport in these materials. Controlling bulk carriers in current topological insulator materials, such as the binary sesquichalcogenides Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3 and Bi2Se3, has been explored extensively by means of material doping and electrical gating, but limited progress has been made to achieve nanostructures with low bulk conductivity for electronic device applications. Here we demonstrate that the ternary sesquichalcogenide (Bi(x)Sb(1-x))2Te3 is a tunable topological insulator system. By tuning the ratio of bismuth to antimony, we are able to reduce the bulk carrier density by over two orders of magnitude, while maintaining the topological insulator properties. As a result, we observe a clear ambipolar gating effect in (Bi(x)Sb(1-x))2Te3 nanoplate field-effect transistor devices, similar to that observed in graphene field-effect transistor devices. The manipulation of carrier type and density in topological insulator nanostructures demonstrated here paves the way for the implementation of topological insulators in nanoelectronics and spintronics.

361 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 May 2013-ACS Nano
TL;DR: The production and characterization of germanane, a one-atom-thick sheet of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms structurally similar to graphane, is reported on, a 2D nanomaterial generated via mechanical exfoliation from GeH.
Abstract: While the advent of graphene has focused attention on the extraordinary properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials, graphene’s lack of an intrinsic band gap and limited amenability to chemical modification has sparked increasing interest in its close relatives and in other 2D layered nanomaterials. In this issue of ACS Nano, Bianco et al. report on the production and characterization of one of these related materials: germanane, a one-atom-thick sheet of hydrogenated puckered germanium atoms structurally similar to graphane. It is a 2D nanomaterial generated via mechanical exfoliation from GeH. Germanane has been predicted to have technologically relevant properties such as a direct band gap and high electron mobility. Monolayer 2D materials like germanane, in general, have attracted enormous interest for their potential technological applications. We offer a perspective on the field of 2D layered nanomaterials and the exciting growth areas and discuss where the new development of germanane fits in, now...

351 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future is proposed, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics, that considers three fundamental interaction modes: chemical interactions and phase transformations, electronic and surface redox interactions, and physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids.
Abstract: Two-dimensional materials have become a major focus in materials chemistry research worldwide with substantial efforts centered on synthesis, property characterization, and technological application. These high-aspect ratio sheet-like solids come in a wide array of chemical compositions, crystal phases, and physical forms, and are anticipated to enable a host of future technologies in areas that include electronics, sensors, coatings, barriers, energy storage and conversion, and biomedicine. A parallel effort has begun to understand the biological and environmental interactions of synthetic nanosheets, both to enable the biomedical developments and to ensure human health and safety for all application fields. This review covers the most recent literature on the biological responses to 2D materials and also draws from older literature on natural lamellar minerals to provide additional insight into the essential chemical behaviors. The article proposes a framework for more systematic investigation of biological behavior in the future, rooted in fundamental materials chemistry and physics. That framework considers three fundamental interaction modes: (i) chemical interactions and phase transformations, (ii) electronic and surface redox interactions, and (iii) physical and mechanical interactions that are unique to near-atomically-thin, high-aspect-ratio solids. Two-dimensional materials are shown to exhibit a wide range of behaviors, which reflect the diversity in their chemical compositions, and many are expected to undergo reactive dissolution processes that will be key to understanding their behaviors and interpreting biological response data. The review concludes with a series of recommendations for high-priority research subtopics at the “bio-nanosheet” interface that we hope will enable safe and successful development of technologies related to two-dimensional nanomaterials.

204 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Development of rod-shaped semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum rods) as fluorescent biological labels for nonspecific cell tracking as well as specific cellular targeting is reported.
Abstract: In this paper, we report the development of rod-shaped semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum rods) as fluorescent biological labels. Water-soluble biocompatible quantum rods have been prepared by surface silanization and applied for nonspecific cell tracking as well as specific cellular targeting. Quantum rods are brighter single molecule probes as compared to quantum dots. They have many potential applications as biological labels in situations where their properties offer advantages over quantum dots.

191 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
13 Jan 2017-Science
TL;DR: A unified theoretical framework highlights the need for catalyst design strategies that selectively stabilize distinct reaction intermediates relative to each other, and opens up opportunities and approaches to develop higher-performance electrocatalysts for a wide range of reactions.
Abstract: BACKGROUND With a rising global population, increasing energy demands, and impending climate change, major concerns have been raised over the security of our energy future. Developing sustainable, fossil-free pathways to produce fuels and chemicals of global importance could play a major role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions while providing the feedstocks needed to make the products we use on a daily basis. One prospective goal is to develop electrochemical conversion processes that can convert molecules in the atmosphere (e.g., water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen) into higher-value products (e.g., hydrogen, hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and ammonia) by coupling to renewable energy. Electrocatalysts play a key role in these energy conversion technologies because they increase the rate, efficiency, and selectivity of the chemical transformations involved. Today’s electrocatalysts, however, are inadequate. The grand challenge is to develop advanced electrocatalysts with the enhanced performance needed to enable widespread penetration of clean energy technologies. ADVANCES Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding several key electrochemical transformations, particularly those that involve water, hydrogen, and oxygen. The combination of theoretical and experimental studies working in concert has proven to be a successful strategy in this respect, yielding a framework to understand catalytic trends that can ultimately provide rational guidance toward the development of improved catalysts. Catalyst design strategies that aim to increase the number of active sites and/or increase the intrinsic activity of each active site have been successfully developed. The field of hydrogen evolution, for example, has seen important breakthroughs over the years in the development of highly active non–precious metal catalysts in acid. Notable advancements have also been made in the design of oxygen reduction and evolution catalysts, although there remains substantial room for improvement. The combination of theory and experiment elucidates the remaining challenges in developing further improved catalysts, often involving scaling relations among reactive intermediates. This understanding serves as an initial platform to design strategies to circumvent technical obstacles, opening up opportunities and approaches to develop higher-performance electrocatalysts for a wide range of reactions. OUTLOOK A systematic framework of combining theory and experiment in electrocatalysis helps to uncover broader governing principles that can be used to understand a wide variety of electrochemical transformations. These principles can be applied to other emerging and promising clean energy reactions, including hydrogen peroxide production, carbon dioxide reduction, and nitrogen reduction, among others. Although current paradigms for catalyst development have been helpful to date, a number of challenges need to be successfully addressed in order to achieve major breakthroughs. One important frontier, for example, is the development of both experimental and computational methods that can rapidly elucidate reaction mechanisms on broad classes of materials and in a wide range of operating conditions (e.g., pH, solvent, electrolyte). Such efforts would build on current frameworks for understanding catalysis to provide the deeper insights needed to fine-tune catalyst properties in an optimal manner. The long-term goal is to continue improving the activity and selectivity of these catalysts in order to realize the prospects of using renewable energy to provide the fuels and chemicals that we need for a sustainable energy future.

7,062 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review highlights the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and summarizes some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatsalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalyst.
Abstract: Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods of these HER electrocatalysts, the strategies of performance improvement, and the structure/composition-catalytic activity relationship. We also summarize some important examples showing that non-Pt HER electrocatalysts could serve as efficient cocatalysts for promoting direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion in both photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting systems, when combined with suitable semiconductor photocatalysts.

4,351 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Mar 2013-ACS Nano
TL;DR: The properties and advantages of single-, few-, and many-layer 2D materials in field-effect transistors, spin- and valley-tronics, thermoelectrics, and topological insulators, among many other applications are highlighted.
Abstract: Graphene’s success has shown that it is possible to create stable, single and few-atom-thick layers of van der Waals materials, and also that these materials can exhibit fascinating and technologically useful properties. Here we review the state-of-the-art of 2D materials beyond graphene. Initially, we will outline the different chemical classes of 2D materials and discuss the various strategies to prepare single-layer, few-layer, and multilayer assembly materials in solution, on substrates, and on the wafer scale. Additionally, we present an experimental guide for identifying and characterizing single-layer-thick materials, as well as outlining emerging techniques that yield both local and global information. We describe the differences that occur in the electronic structure between the bulk and the single layer and discuss various methods of tuning their electronic properties by manipulating the surface. Finally, we highlight the properties and advantages of single-, few-, and many-layer 2D materials in...

4,123 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study has precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles and provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications.
Abstract: The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using intravenously administered quantum dots in rodents as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles. Zwitterionic or neutral organic coatings prevented adsorption of serum proteins, which otherwise increased hydrodynamic diameter by >15 nm and prevented renal excretion. A final hydrodynamic diameter <5.5 nm resulted in rapid and efficient urinary excretion and elimination of quantum dots from the body. This study provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

3,821 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials are introduced, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures, and the assortments of their synthetic methods are summarized.
Abstract: Since the discovery of mechanically exfoliated graphene in 2004, research on ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has grown exponentially in the fields of condensed matter physics, material science, chemistry, and nanotechnology. Highlighting their compelling physical, chemical, electronic, and optical properties, as well as their various potential applications, in this Review, we summarize the state-of-art progress on the ultrathin 2D nanomaterials with a particular emphasis on their recent advances. First, we introduce the unique advances on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials, followed by the description of their composition and crystal structures. The assortments of their synthetic methods are then summarized, including insights on their advantages and limitations, alongside some recommendations on suitable characterization techniques. We also discuss in detail the utilization of these ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for wide ranges of potential applications among the electronics/optoelectronics, electrocat...

3,628 citations