Author

# Krzysztof Lorys

Other affiliations: University of Wrocław

Bio: Krzysztof Lorys is an academic researcher from University of Trier. The author has contributed to research in topics: Permutation & Random permutation. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 6 publications receiving 69 citations. Previous affiliations of Krzysztof Lorys include University of Wrocław.

##### Papers

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TL;DR: The main result of the paper is an algorithm for generating random permutations that runs in O(log log n) time and uses O(n1+o(1)) processors on the CREW PRAM, which is the first o(log n) -time CREWPRAM algorithm for this problem.

Abstract: We consider the problem of generating random permutations with uniform distribution. That is, we require that for an arbitrary permutation π of n elements, with probability 1/n! the machine halts with the i th output cell containing π(i) , for 1 ≤ i ≤ n . We study this problem on two models of parallel computations: the CREW PRAM and the EREW PRAM. The main result of the paper is an algorithm for generating random permutations that runs in O(log log n) time and uses O(n
1+o(1)
) processors on the CREW PRAM. This is the first o(log n) -time CREW PRAM algorithm for this problem. On the EREW PRAM we present a simple algorithm that generates a random permutation in time O(log n) using n processors and O(n) space. This algorithm outperforms each of the previously known algorithms for the exclusive write PRAMs. The common and novel feature of both our algorithms is first to design a suitable random switching network generating a permutation and then to simulate this network on the PRAM model in a fast way.

25 citations

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20 Nov 1994

TL;DR: A general method is introduced that converts an arbitrary comparator network that sorts n items in time T(n) and that has layout area A into a periodic sorting network of depth 5 that sorts /spl Theta/(n/spl middot/T(n)) items inTime O(T( n)/spl m Siddot/log n) and has layout Area A.

Abstract: A periodic comparator network has depth (or period) k, if for every t>k, the compare-exchange operations performed at step t are executed between exactly the same registers as at step t-k. We introduce a general method that converts an arbitrary comparator network that sorts n items in time T(n) and that has layout area A into a periodic sorting network of depth 5 that sorts /spl Theta/(n/spl middot/T(n)) items in time O(T(n)/spl middot/log n) and has layout area O(A/spl middot/T(n)). This scheme applied to the AKS network yields a depth 5 periodic comparator network that sorts in time O(log/sup 2/ n). More practical networks with runtime O(log/sup 3/ n) can be obtained from Batcher's networks. Developing the techniques for the main result, we improve some previous results: Let us fix a d/spl isin/N. Then we can construct a network of depth 3 based on a d-dimensional mesh sorting n items in time O(n/sup 1/d//spl middot/log/sup O(d/) n). >

20 citations

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25 Sep 1996TL;DR: This work considers the classical problem of generating random permutations with the uniform distribution, and studies the problem on two models of parallel computations: the CREW PRAM and the EREWPRAM.

Abstract: We consider the classical problem of generating random permutations with the uniform distribution. That is, we require that for an arbitrary permutation π of n elements, with probability 1/n! the machine halts with the ith output cell containing π(i), for 1≤i≤n. We study this problem on two models of parallel computations: the CREW PRAM and the EREW PRAM.

12 citations

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TL;DR: A new family of merging networks working in a completely different way than the previously known algorithms, with a novel property of being periodic: for some (small) constant k, each processing unit of the network performs the same operations at steps t and t+k (as long as t-k does not exceed the runtime).

Abstract: We consider the problem of merging two sorted sequences on constant degree networks performing compare—exchange operations only. The classical solution to this problem is given by the networks based on Batcher's Odd—Even Merge and Bitonic Merge running in log(2n ) time. Due to the obvious log n lower bound for the runtime, this is time-optimal. We present a new family of merging networks working in a completely different way than the previously known algorithms. They have a novel property of being periodic: this means that for some (small) constant k , each processing unit of the network performs the same operations at steps t and t+k (as long as t+k does not exceed the runtime). The only operations executed are compare—exchange operations, just like in the case of Batcher's networks. The architecture of the networks is very simple and easy to lay out. We show that even for period 3 there is a network in our family merging two n -element sorted sequences in time O(log n ). Since each network of period 2 requires $\Theta(n)$ steps to merge such sequences, 3 is the smallest period for which we may achieve a fast runtime. In order to improve constants standing in front of log n we increment the period and tune the construction using additional techniques. We achieve the runtime 9 . . . log_3 n
$\approx$ 5.7 . . . log n for a network of period 4, and 2.25 . . . ((k+3)/(k-1+log 3))log n
$\approx$ 2.25 . . . log n for a network of period k+3 , for $k\geq 1$ . Due to the periodic design, our networks have small area complexity. For instance, if each processing unit requires O(1) area and a comparator uses a single wire of width O(1) connecting the processing elements, then our networks require $\Theta((n/\log n)^2)$ area. This compares well with Batcher's networks that require area $\Theta(n^2)$ .

7 citations

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16 Dec 1996TL;DR: This work considers the problem of merging two sorted sequences on constant degree networks using comparators only and finds the classical networks based on Batcher's Odd-Even Merge and Bitonic Merge running in log(2n) time is time-optimal.

Abstract: We consider the problem of merging two sorted sequences on constant degree networks using comparators only The classical solution to the problem are the networks based on Batcher's Odd-Even Merge and Bitonic Merge running in log(2n) time Due to the obvious log n lower bound for the runtime, this is time-optimal

3 citations

##### Cited by

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19 Aug 2009TL;DR: The results, which employ Markov-chain techniques, enable the construction of a practical and provably-secure blockcipher-based scheme for deterministically enciphering credit card numbers and the like using a conventional blockCipher.

Abstract: We analyze the security of the Thorp shuffle, or, equivalently, a maximally unbalanced Feistel network. Roughly said, the Thorp shuffle on N cards mixes any N 1 ? 1/r of them in $O(r\lg N)$ steps. Correspondingly, making O(r) passes of maximally unbalanced Feistel over an n-bit string ensures CCA-security to 2 n(1 ? 1/r) queries. Our results, which employ Markov-chain techniques, enable the construction of a practical and provably-secure blockcipher-based scheme for deterministically enciphering credit card numbers and the like using a conventional blockcipher.

117 citations

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21 Jul 2002TL;DR: A deterministic solution with sublogarithmic energy cost and a randomized algorithm with energy consumption O(log* n) that yields a result with high probability are presented and it is proved that this lower bound holds in a randomized case.

Abstract: We present energy efficient algorithms for leader election in single channel single-hop radio networks with no collision detection. We present a deterministic solution with sublogarithmic energy cost (the best previous result was O(log n)) and show a double logarithmic lower bound. We prove that this lower bound holds in a randomized case, in a certain sense.For the case, when the number n of active stations can be approximated in advance, we show a randomized algorithm with energy consumption O(log* n) that yields a result with high probability (the best previous result was O(log log n)).

113 citations

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University of Hildesheim

^{1}, Fordham University^{2}, Salisbury University^{3}, Max Planck Society^{4}TL;DR: This work focuses on (partial) permutation, k-relation routing, routing to random destinations, dynamic routing, isotonic routing, fault tolerant routing, and related sorting results.

Abstract: We survey routing problems on fixed-connection networks. We consider many aspects of the routing problem and provide known theoretical results for various communication models. We focus on (partial) permutation, k-relation routing, routing to random destinations, dynamic routing, isotonic routing, fault tolerant routing, and related sorting results. We also provide a list of unsolved problems and numerous references.

103 citations

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TL;DR: The algorithm can be directly translated into an optimal external memory algorithm if fast memory for √ nB (1 + o (1) + O ( B ) elements is available where B is the page size.

Abstract: A simple randomized algorithm for generating a uniformly distributed random permutation of size n is investigated. It works in time O ( n P + T comm ( n P , P) + T prefix (P)) on P processors with high probability, where T comm ( k , P ) is the time for randomly sending or receiving k elements on each processor and T prefix ( P ) is the time for computing a prefix sum. The algorithm can be directly translated into an optimal external memory algorithm if fast memory for √ nB (1 + o (1)) + O ( B ) elements is available where B is the page size. Due to its simplicity, the same algorithm even outperforms the straightforward method on mainstream workstations if the cache is taken to be the fast memory and the main memory is treated like external memory. The algorithm is almost four times faster on a MIPS R10000 machine.

52 citations

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18 Aug 2013TL;DR: A new shuffling algorithm, called Mix-and-Cut, is provided that provides a provably-secure block cipher even for adversaries that can observe the encryption of all N = 2 n domain points.

Abstract: We provide a new shuffling algorithm, called Mix-and-Cut, that provides a provably-secure block cipher even for adversaries that can observe the encryption of all N = 2 n domain points. Such fully secure ciphers are useful for format-preserving encryption, where small domains (e.g., n = 30) are common and databases may well include examples of almost all ciphertexts. Mix-and-Cut derives from a general framework for building fully secure pseudorandom permutations (PRPs) from fully secure pseudorandom separators (PRSs). The latter is a new primitive that we treat for the first time. Our framework was inspired by, and uses ideas from, a particular cipher due to Granboulin and Pornin. To achieve full security for Mix-and-Cut using this framework, we give a simple proof that a PRP secure for (1 − e)N queries (recently achieved efficiently by Hoang, Morris, and Rogaway’s Swap-or-Not cipher) yields a PRS secure for N queries.

49 citations