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Kunarso Kunarso

Bio: Kunarso Kunarso is an academic researcher from Diponegoro University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Physics & Upwelling. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 29 publications receiving 96 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kunci et al. as mentioned in this paper described and studied the spatial and temporal variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a at upwelling area during the Variabilitas suhu and klorofil-a permukaan laut.
Abstract: Informasi mengenai variabilitas spasial suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut memiliki peran penting sebagai sarana pendugaan daerah potensi ikan tuna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menggambarkan variabilitas suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut baik secara spasial maupun temporal di daerah upwelling pada variasi kejadian El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO) dan Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode (IOD) di perairan Selatan Jawa hingga Timor. Variabilitas suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut dikaji berdasarkan data-data MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spektroradiometer) bulanan Level 3 dari satelit Aqua dan Terra. Nilai suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut bervariasi menurut waktu (bulan), wilayah (provinsi) dan variasi antar tahunan iklim global (El Nino-IOD(-), El Nino-IOD(+), La Nina-IOD(-) dan La Nina-IOD(+). Secara umum kisaran suhu permukaan laut (SPL) di daerah upwelling pada variasi ENSO dan IOD berkisar 26,18 -28,35°C dengan rerata 27,04±0,93°C. Kisaran klorofil-a sebesar 0,3-0,95 mg/M³ dengan rerata 0,69±0,28mg/M³. Mulai bulan Juni umumnya nilai suhu permukaan laut (SPL) semakin turun dan klorofil-a semakin meningkat hingga mencapai puncak bulan Agustus atau September, kemudian berangsur normal kembali. Nilai suhu permukaan laut terendah ditemukan berkembang dari timur (Bali) pada bulan Juni bergerak ke barat hingga Jawa Barat di bulan Oktober. Nilai klorofil-a tinggi berkembang sesuai dengan perkembangan suhu terendah, namun nilai klorofil-a tertinggi umumnya bergerak tidak sesuai dengan perkembangan SPL terendah. Klorofil-a tertinggi umumnya terjadi di perairan selatan Provinsi Bali. Jauh dekatnya pergerakan SPL terendah dan klorofil-a tinggi tampak dipengaruhi nilai IOD-nya, semakin besar nilai IOD maka semakin jauh gerakannya ke barat. Kata Kunci : Variabilitas, suhu, klorofil-a, upwelling, perairan selatan Jawa The information of spatial variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a are important for predicting potential fishing ground of tuna. The aims of the reseach are to describe and study the spatial and temporal variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a at upwelling area during the variabilities of El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO) and Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode (IOD) event at southern waters of Jawa until Timor Island. They were studied based on monthly MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spektroradiometer) data Level 3 from Aqua and Terra satelite. The values of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a are variable in the times (month), areas (province) and annually global climate (El Nino-IOD(-), El Nino-IOD(+), La Nina-IOD(-) dan La Nina-IOD(+). Commonly range of the seawater surface temperature (SST) at upwelling area on the variabilities of ENSO and IOD are about 26.18-28.35°C with average 27.04±0,93°C, whereas average of chlorophyll-a are about 0.3-0.95 mg/m³ with average 0.69±0,28mg/M³. From June, sea surface temperature starts to decrease but clhorophyl-a is increasing and back to normal after reaching peak in August or September. The lowest sea surface temperature was found developing from east (Bali) in June and then moving to west until southern west Java in October. The development of high chlorophyll-a values are suitable with that of low sea surface temperature. However the development of highest chlorophyll-a generally move inconsistent with that of lowest sea surface temperature. The highest chlorophyll-a generally happen at the southern of Bali Province. The distance movement of the low sea surface temperature and high chlorophyll-a distributions are affected by IOD value, the higher IOD value the further they move to the west. Key words: Variability, temperature, khlorophyll-a, upwelling, southern waters of Jawa

41 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The previous studies of upwelling within the Indonesian seas only focused on the Southeast Monsoon (SEM) season as discussed by the authors, and none of the previous studies focused on other seasons.
Abstract: The previous studies of upwelling within the Indonesian seas only focused on the Southeast Monsoon (SEM) season. The western coast of Sumatra Island; the southern coast of Java Island, Sunda Island...

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a corelation between upwelling location with tuna fishing ground was studied, and it was found that the upwellings location is potential tuna fishery ground, as well as its correlation with the fishing ground are necessary to be studied.
Abstract: Ikan tuna adalah penyumbang devisa negara dari sektor perikanan yang tinggi.Penentuan lokasi fishing ground yang tepat perlu dilakukan untuk mengoptimalkan penangkapannya. Lokasi upwelling sebagai daerah yang subur perlu dikaji keterkaitannya dengan fishing ground tuna. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji kaitan antara lokasi upwelling dengan fishing ground potensial ikan tuna. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan analisis diskriptif dengan membandingkan data karakteristik lokasi upwelling , bioekologi dan perikanan tuna. Berdasarkan hasil analisa ditemukan bahwa lokasi upwelling merupakan fishing ground tuna yang potensial. Dengan meng-overlay (penampalan) peta distribusi tuna dan lokasi upwelling, telah diperoleh peta lokasi prediksi fishing ground tuna yang potensial berdasarkan variasi bulan dan tipe periode kejadian iklim (Normal, El Nino, dan La Nina) Kata kunci : tuna, lokasi upwelling, lokasi penangkapan Tuna fishes give high contribution to the country devisa. Determination of proper fishing ground is necessary to be done in order to optimallize the tuna catch. The upwelling location, as the fertile area, and its correlation with tuna fishing ground are necessary to be studied. The aim of this research was studying corelation between upwelling location with tuna fishing ground. Metode of this research used was description analysis with compare upwelling characteristis, bioecology, and tuna fishing data. Based on analysis of the result, it is found that upwelling location is potential tuna fishing ground. By overlying, we have produced the monthly prediction map of potential tuna fishing ground and its relation to climate variability (e.g., Normal, El Nino, and La Nina events). Key words : tuna, upwelling, fishing ground

14 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was found that interannual variability of climate (Normal, El Nino, and La Nina events) couses different upwelling characteristics, such as longer period, wider spacial distibution and stronger intensity than that during the Normal and La Nino ones.
Abstract: Kejadian upwelling di sepanjang perairan Selatan Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) hingga Barat Sumatera merupakan bentuk evolusi upwelling yang setiap tahun berulang. Fenomena upwelling ini dipengaruhi oleh musim dan iklim. Adanya perubahan fenomena iklim (Normal, El Nino, dan La Nina) diduga akan menyebabkan perubahan karakteristik upwelling, baik temporal (periode upwelling), spasial (distribusi horisontal), maupun intensitasnya. Berdasarkan hasil analisa dari data pola angin, model pola arus, sebaran suhu baik dari model maupun dari WOD ( Word Ocean Data ), serta data satelit yang berupa SST ( Sea Surface Temperature ) dan chlorofil-a, ditemukan bahwa pada variasi fenomena iklim (Normal, El Nino dan La Nina) tahunan , menunjukkan karakteristik upwelling yang berbeda. Upwelling pada tipe periode El Nino mempunyai karakteristik lebih lama, lebih luas distribusi spasialnya dan lebih kuat intensitasnya dibanding pada periode Normal dan La Nina. Upwelling pada tipe periode La Nina mempunyai karakteristik paling singkat kejadiannya, paling sempit distribusi spasialnya dan paling kecil intensitasnya dibanding periode El Nino dan Normal. Kata kunci : Upwelling, Normal, El Nino, La Nina Upwelling evolution on the Southern Coast of NTT to the Western Coast of Sumatera occurs periodically every year. This upwelling phenomena is affected by weather and climate. The climate variability (Normal, El Nino, dan La Nina) are supposed to couses the upwelling characteristic changes, both temporally (upwelling periodic) and spacially (horizontal distribution) and also upwelling intensity. Based on wind data analysis, current patern model, temperature distribution carried out from model data, Word Ocean Data and Sea Surface Temperature and chlorophyl-a obtained from satelite image, it is found that interannual variability of climate (Normal, El Nino, and La Nina events) couses different upwelling characteristics. Upwelling during the El Nino event has longer period, wider spacial distibution and stronger intensity than that during the Normal and La Nina ones. Upwelling during the La Nina events has shorter period, narrower spacial distribution, and weaker intensity than that during the El Nino and Normal event. Key words : Upwelling, Normal, El Nino, La Nina

12 citations

01 Oct 2017
TL;DR: In this article, some coastal parts in Indonesia has wave energy potential to develop for renewable energy, the potential parts were consisted of western of Sumatera Island, Southern of Java Bali Nusa Tenggara and Northern of Papua Island.
Abstract: Indonesia is a maritime country that has vast ocean. Some coastal parts in Indonesia has wave energy potential to develop for renewable energy. In some researches that were conducted, the potential parts were consisted of western of Sumatera Island, Southern of Java Bali Nusa Tenggara and Northern of Papua Island.Those regions have various results of wave characteristics and an estimation of generated electical energy. Others factors that we have to concern to implement this energy were costs, transmissions from sources to users and maintenace of devices. The strategic plans should be arranged for the commercial developments.

9 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kunci et al. as mentioned in this paper described and studied the spatial and temporal variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a at upwelling area during the Variabilitas suhu and klorofil-a permukaan laut.
Abstract: Informasi mengenai variabilitas spasial suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut memiliki peran penting sebagai sarana pendugaan daerah potensi ikan tuna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menggambarkan variabilitas suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut baik secara spasial maupun temporal di daerah upwelling pada variasi kejadian El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO) dan Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode (IOD) di perairan Selatan Jawa hingga Timor. Variabilitas suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut dikaji berdasarkan data-data MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spektroradiometer) bulanan Level 3 dari satelit Aqua dan Terra. Nilai suhu dan klorofil-a permukaan laut bervariasi menurut waktu (bulan), wilayah (provinsi) dan variasi antar tahunan iklim global (El Nino-IOD(-), El Nino-IOD(+), La Nina-IOD(-) dan La Nina-IOD(+). Secara umum kisaran suhu permukaan laut (SPL) di daerah upwelling pada variasi ENSO dan IOD berkisar 26,18 -28,35°C dengan rerata 27,04±0,93°C. Kisaran klorofil-a sebesar 0,3-0,95 mg/M³ dengan rerata 0,69±0,28mg/M³. Mulai bulan Juni umumnya nilai suhu permukaan laut (SPL) semakin turun dan klorofil-a semakin meningkat hingga mencapai puncak bulan Agustus atau September, kemudian berangsur normal kembali. Nilai suhu permukaan laut terendah ditemukan berkembang dari timur (Bali) pada bulan Juni bergerak ke barat hingga Jawa Barat di bulan Oktober. Nilai klorofil-a tinggi berkembang sesuai dengan perkembangan suhu terendah, namun nilai klorofil-a tertinggi umumnya bergerak tidak sesuai dengan perkembangan SPL terendah. Klorofil-a tertinggi umumnya terjadi di perairan selatan Provinsi Bali. Jauh dekatnya pergerakan SPL terendah dan klorofil-a tinggi tampak dipengaruhi nilai IOD-nya, semakin besar nilai IOD maka semakin jauh gerakannya ke barat. Kata Kunci : Variabilitas, suhu, klorofil-a, upwelling, perairan selatan Jawa The information of spatial variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a are important for predicting potential fishing ground of tuna. The aims of the reseach are to describe and study the spatial and temporal variabilities of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a at upwelling area during the variabilities of El Nino Southern Oscilation (ENSO) and Indian Oscillation Dipole Mode (IOD) event at southern waters of Jawa until Timor Island. They were studied based on monthly MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spektroradiometer) data Level 3 from Aqua and Terra satelite. The values of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a are variable in the times (month), areas (province) and annually global climate (El Nino-IOD(-), El Nino-IOD(+), La Nina-IOD(-) dan La Nina-IOD(+). Commonly range of the seawater surface temperature (SST) at upwelling area on the variabilities of ENSO and IOD are about 26.18-28.35°C with average 27.04±0,93°C, whereas average of chlorophyll-a are about 0.3-0.95 mg/m³ with average 0.69±0,28mg/M³. From June, sea surface temperature starts to decrease but clhorophyl-a is increasing and back to normal after reaching peak in August or September. The lowest sea surface temperature was found developing from east (Bali) in June and then moving to west until southern west Java in October. The development of high chlorophyll-a values are suitable with that of low sea surface temperature. However the development of highest chlorophyll-a generally move inconsistent with that of lowest sea surface temperature. The highest chlorophyll-a generally happen at the southern of Bali Province. The distance movement of the low sea surface temperature and high chlorophyll-a distributions are affected by IOD value, the higher IOD value the further they move to the west. Key words: Variability, temperature, khlorophyll-a, upwelling, southern waters of Jawa

41 citations

01 Jan 2005
TL;DR: In this paper, the upwelling location, as the fertile area, and its correlation with tuna fishing ground are studied, and a monthly prediction map of potential tuna fishing grounds and its relation to climate variability (e.g., Normal, El Nino, and La Nina events).
Abstract: Tuna fishes give high contribution to the country devisa. Determination of proper fishing ground is necessary to be done in order to optimallize the tuna catch. The upwelling location, as the fertile area, and its correlation with tuna fishing ground are necessary to be studied. The aim of this research was studying corelation between upwelling location with tuna fishing ground. Metode of this research used was description analysis with compare upwelling characteristis, bioecology, and tuna fishing data. Based on analysis of the result, it is found that upwelling location is potential tuna fishing ground. By overlying, we have produced the monthly prediction map of potential tuna fishing ground and its relation to climate variability (e.g., Normal, El Nino, and La Nina events).

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this research is to predict sea surface flow velocity and direction using LSTM and it achieved the smallest MAPE values of U and V components with 50 hidden layers, 32 Batch size and 150 Learn rate drop.
Abstract: Labuan Bajo is considered to have an important role as a transportation route for traders and tourists. Therefore, it is necessary to have a further understanding of the condition of the waters in Labuan Bajo, one of them is sea currents. The purpose of this research is to predict sea surface flow velocity and direction using LSTM. There are many prediction methods, one of them is Long short-term memory (LSTM). The fundamental of LSTM is to process information from the previous memory by going through three gates, that is forget gate, input gate, and output gate so the output will be the input in the next process. Based on trials with several parameters namely Hidden Layer, Learning Rate, Batch Size, and Learning rate drop period, it achieved the smallest MAPE values of U and V components of 14.15% and 8.43% with 50 hidden layers, 32 Batch size and 150 Learn rate drop.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this article, upwelling characteristics in Banggai-Maluku Sea (BMS) during super El Nino 2015 event and its interannual variation related to ENSO used validated INDESO model output and satellite imagery datasets between 2008 and 2015.
Abstract: Investigation of upwelling characteristics in Banggai-Maluku Sea (BMS) during super El Nino 2015 event and its interannual variation related to ENSO used validated INDESO model output and satellite imagery datasets between 2008 and 2015. The result shows the upwelling episode occurs during the Southeast Monsoon period from June to October, and its maximum in September. It is mainly forced by fully developed southerly monsoon winds, dragging surface water northward similar to the wind direction since the effect of Coriolis vanishes near the equator. Warm surface water in the center upwelling is replaced by upwelled colder water from about 60 m, which evolves from southern to northern region then curving to northeastern due to the boundary of Sulawesi mainland. Upwelling characteristics in 2015 event is indicated by drastic changes in ocean-atmosphere variables, such as increased northward meridional winds/infrared heat flux/transport volume, decreased sensible heat flux/mixed layer depth, upwelled 26°C isotherm from 60 m depth to surface, and blooming surface chlorophyll-a. Between 2008 and 2015, upwelling intensity in 2015 was the most powerful (index: -5.35), in contrast to upwelling intensity during 2010 strong La Nina event (+0.27). Hence, ENSO influences significantly on fluctuation of upwelling intensity in BMS.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2017
TL;DR: In this article, the authors aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling and chlorophyll-a concentration.
Abstract: This study was aimed to get the distribution of eddies spatially and temporally from Makassar Waters (MW) to Flores Sea (FS), as well as its relations with the upwelling, the downwelling, and chlorophyll-a concentration. The study area extends from 115o–125o E to 2.5o–8o S. The datasets were consisted of monthly geostrophic currents, sea surface heights, sea surface temperatures, and chlorophyll-a from 2008 – 2012. The results showed that eddies which found at Makassar Strait (MS) has the highest diameter and speed of 255.3 km and 21.4 cm/s respectively, while at the southern MW has 266.4 km and 15.6 cm/s, and at FS has 182.04 km and 11.4 cm/s. From a total of 51 eddies found, the majority of eddies type was anticyclonic. At MS and FS, eddies formed along the year, whereas at southern MW were found missing in West Season. Moreover, the chlorophyll-a concentration was consistently higher at the eddies area. Even though, the correlation among eddies and the upwelling downwelling phenomena was not significantly as shown by sea surface temperatures value.

11 citations