L. D. Clements
Other affiliations: University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Bio: L. D. Clements is an academic researcher from United States Department of Agriculture. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Vegetable oil & Fatty acid. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 85 citation(s). Previous affiliations of L. D. Clements include University of Nebraska–Lincoln.
Topics: Vegetable oil, Fatty acid
TL;DR: The liquid density of vegetable oils can be estimated by using mixture properties corresponding to the fatty acid composition and a correction for the triglyceride form as discussed by the authors, which is explicitly temperature-dependent.
Abstract: The liquid density of fatty acids can be accurately estimated by the modified Rackett equation over a wide range of temperatures. The modified Rackett equation requires the critical properties and an empirical parameter,Z RA , for each acid as the basis for computing density as a function of temperature. The liquid density of vegetable oils can be estimated by using mixture properties corresponding to the fatty acid composition and a correction for the triglyceride form. The density prediction is explicitly temperature-dependent.
18 Oct 2002
TL;DR: In this article, Gunstone et al. present a survey of the production and trade of vegetable oils and their application in the food industry, including the extraction of olive oil from olives.
Abstract: Preface to the First Edition. Preface to the Second Edition. Contributors. List of Abbreviations. 1 Production and Trade of Vegetable Oils ( Frank D. Gunstone ). 1.1 Extraction, refining and processing. 1.2 Vegetable oils: Production, consumption and trade. 1.3 Some topical issues. 2 Palm Oil ( Siew Wai Lin ). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Composition and properties of palm oil and fractions. 2.3 Physical characteristics of palm oil products. 2.4 Minor components of palm oil products. 2.5 Food applications of palm oil products. 2.5.1 Cooking/frying oil. 2.6 Nutritional aspects of palm oil. 2.7 Sustainable palm oil. 2.8 Conclusions. 3 Soybean Oil ( Tong Wang ). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Composition of soybean and soybean oil. 3.3 Recovery and refining of soybean oil. 3.4 Oil composition modification by processing and biotechnology. 3.5 Physical properties of soybean oil. 3.6 Oxidation evaluation of soybean oil. 3.7 Nutritional properties of soybean oil. 3.8 Food uses of soybean oil. 4 Canola/Rapeseed Oil ( Roman Przybylski ). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Composition. 4.3 Physical and chemical properties. 4.4 Major food uses. 4.5 Conclusion and outlook. 5 Sunflower Oil ( Maria A. Grompone ). 5.1 Introduction. 5.2 Sunflower oil from different types of seed. 5.3 Physical and chemical properties. 5.4 Melting properties and thermal behaviour. 5.5 Extraction and processing of sunflower oil. 5.6 Modified properties of sunflower oil. 5.7 Oxidative stability of commercial sunflower oils. 5.8 Food uses of different sunflower oil types. 5.9 Frying use of commercial sunflower oil types. 6 The Lauric (Coconut and Palm Kernel) Oils ( Ibrahim Nuzul Amri ). 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Coconut oil. 6.3 Palm kernel oil. 6.4 Processing. 6.5 Food uses. 6.6 Health aspects. 7 Cottonseed Oil ( Michael K. Dowd ). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 History. 7.3 Seed composition. 7.4 Oil composition. 7.5 Chemical and physical properties of cottonseed oil. 7.6 Processing. 7.7 Cottonseed oil uses. 7.8 Co-product uses. 8 Groundnut (Peanut) Oil ( Lisa L. Dean, Jack P. Davis, and Timothy H. Sanders ). 8.1 Peanut production, history, and oil extraction. 8.2 Oil uses. 8.3 Composition of groundnut oil. 8.4 Chemical and physical characteristics of groundnut oil. 8.5 Health issues. 9 Olive Oil ( Dimitrios Boskou ). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Extraction of olive oil from olives. 9.3 Olive oil composition. 9.4 Effect of processing olives on the composition of virgin olive oils. 9.5 Refining and modification. 9.6 Hardening and interesterification. 9.7 Quality, genuineness and regulations. 9.8 Consumption and culinary applications. 10 Corn Oil ( Robert A. Moreau ). 10.1 Composition of corn oil. 10.2 Properties of corn oil. 10.3 Major food uses of corn oil. 10.4 Conclusions. 11 Minor and Speciality Oils ( S. Prakash Kochhar ). 11.1 Introduction. 11.2 Sesame seed oil. 11.3 Rice bran oil. 11.4 Flaxseed (linseed and linola) oil. 11.5 Safflower oil. 11.6 Argan kernel oil. 11.7 Avocado oil. 11.8 Camelina seed oil. 11.9 Grape seed oil. 11.10 Pumpkin seed oil. 11.11 Sea buckthorn oil. 11.12 Cocoa butter and CBE. 11.13 Oils containing a-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA). 11.14 Tree nut oils. Useful Websites. Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, the relationship between the chemical structure and physical properties of vegetable oil esters is reviewed and engineering fatty acid profiles to optimize biodiesel fuel characteristics is highlighted, which is of particular importance when choosing vegetable oils that will give the desired biodiesel quality.
Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable, biodegradable, environmentally benign, energy efficient, substitution fuel which can fulfill energy security needs without sacrificing engine’s operational performance. Thus it provides a feasible solution to the twin crises of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. The properties of the various individual fatty esters that comprise biodiesel determine the overall properties of the biodiesel fuel. In turn, the properties of the various fatty esters are determined by the structural features of the fatty acid and the alcohol moieties that comprise a fatty ester. Better understanding of the structure-physical property relationships in fatty acid esters is of particular importance when choosing vegetable oils that will give the desired biodiesel quality. By having accurate knowledge of the influence of the molecular structure on the properties determined, the composition of the oils and the alcohol used can both be selected to give the optimal performance. In this paper the relationship between the chemical structure and physical properties of vegetable oil esters is reviewed and engineering fatty acid profiles to optimize biodiesel fuel characteristics is highlighted.
TL;DR: In this article, literature values of density, viscosity, adiabatic expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat (constant pressure), ultrasonic velocity, and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient are compiled for a range of food oils and water at 20°C, and a series of empirical equations are suggested to calculate the temperature dependency of these parameters.
Abstract: Literature values of density, viscosity, adiabatic expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, specific heat (constant pressure), ultrasonic velocity, and ultrasonic attenuation coefficient are compiled for a range of food oils and water at 20°C, and a series of empirical equations are suggested to calculate the temperature dependency of these parameters. The importance of these data to the application of ultrasonic particle-sizing instruments to food emulsions is discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, a generalized method was developed to estimate the liquid density of vegetable oils and fatty acids, which was based on fatty acid critical properties and composition of the oil, and the correlation for vegetable oils was calculated based on the ratio of fat acid critical and vegetable oil critical properties.
Abstract: A generalized method was developed to estimate the liquid density of vegetable oils and fatty acids. The correlation for vegetable oils was based on fatty acid critical properties and composition of the oil. The correlations predicted the density of vegetable oils and fatty acids with an average absolute deviation of 0.21 and 0.77%, respectively. The present method is slightly more accurate in predicting vegetable oil density and simpler than the method of Halvorsen et al. Also, a method is introduced that predicts viscosity from density data, thus relating two key properties of vegetable oils.
01 Feb 2004-Fluid Phase Equilibria
TL;DR: In this article, a group contribution method is proposed for the estimation of the vapor pressure of fatty compounds, which is shown to be accurate when it is used together with the UNIFAC model for estimating vapor-liquid equilibria of binary and multicomponent fatty mixtures comprised in industrial processes such as stripping of hexane, deodorization and physical refining.
Abstract: In the present work, a group contribution method is proposed for the estimation of the vapor pressure of fatty compounds. For the major components involved in the vegetable oil industry, such as fatty acids, esters and alcohols, triacylglycerols (TAGs) and partial acylglycerols, the optimized parameters are reported. The method is shown to be accurate when it is used together with the UNIFAC model for estimating vapor–liquid equilibria (VLE) of binary and multicomponent fatty mixtures comprised in industrial processes such as stripping of hexane, deodorization and physical refining. The results achieved show that the group contribution approach is a valuable tool for the design of distillation and stripping units since it permits to take into account all the complexity of the mixtures involved. This is particularly important for the evaluation of the loss of distillative neutral oil that occurs during the processing of edible oils. The combination of the vapor pressure model suggested in the present work with the UNIFAC equation gives results similar to those already reported in the literature for fatty acid mixtures and oil–hexane mixtures. However, it is a better tool for predicting vapor–liquid equilibria of a large range of fatty systems, also involving unsaturated compounds, fatty esters and acylglycerols, not contemplated by other methodologies. The approach suggested in this work generates more realistic results concerning vapor–liquid equilibria of systems encountered in the edible oil industry.