Author

# Lalit R. Bahl

Bio: Lalit R. Bahl is an academic researcher from IBM. The author has contributed to research in topics: Vocabulary & Word (computer architecture). The author has an hindex of 47, co-authored 125 publications receiving 14478 citations.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: The general problem of estimating the a posteriori probabilities of the states and transitions of a Markov source observed through a discrete memoryless channel is considered and an optimal decoding algorithm is derived.

Abstract: The general problem of estimating the a posteriori probabilities of the states and transitions of a Markov source observed through a discrete memoryless channel is considered. The decoding of linear block and convolutional codes to minimize symbol error probability is shown to be a special case of this problem. An optimal decoding algorithm is derived.

4,830 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: This paper describes a number of statistical models for use in speech recognition, with special attention to determining the parameters for such models from sparse data, and describes two decoding methods appropriate for constrained artificial languages and one appropriate for more realistic decoding tasks.

Abstract: Speech recognition is formulated as a problem of maximum likelihood decoding. This formulation requires statistical models of the speech production process. In this paper, we describe a number of statistical models for use in speech recognition. We give special attention to determining the parameters for such models from sparse data. We also describe two decoding methods, one appropriate for constrained artificial languages and one appropriate for more realistic decoding tasks. To illustrate the usefulness of the methods described, we review a number of decoding results that have been obtained with them.

1,637 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: A method for estimating the parameters of hidden Markov models of speech is described and recognition results are presented comparing this method with maximum likelihood estimation.

Abstract: A method for estimating the parameters of hidden Markov models of speech is described. Parameter values are chosen to maximize the mutual information between an acoustic observation sequence and the corresponding word sequence. Recognition results are presented comparing this method with maximum likelihood estimation.

921 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Algorithms are presented for automatically constructing a binary decision tree designed to estimate the probability that a given word will be the next word uttered, which is compared to an equivalent trigram model and shown to be superior.

Abstract: The problem of predicting the next word a speaker will say, given the words already spoken; is discussed. Specifically, the problem is to estimate the probability that a given word will be the next word uttered. Algorithms are presented for automatically constructing a binary decision tree designed to estimate these probabilities. At each node of the tree there is a yes/no question relating to the words already spoken, and at each leaf there is a probability distribution over the allowable vocabulary. Ideally, these nodal questions can take the form of arbitrarily complex Boolean expressions, but computationally cheaper alternatives are also discussed. Some results obtained on a 5000-word vocabulary with a tree designed to predict the next word spoken from the preceding 20 words are included. The tree is compared to an equivalent trigram model and shown to be superior. >

444 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the likelihood of a word in a vocabulary of words is evaluated for each word, each total score being the re-sult of combining at least two word scores generated by differing algorithms.

Abstract: SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM ABSTRACT Apparatus and method for evaluating the likelihood of a word in a vocabulary of words wherein a total score is evaluated for each word, each total score being the re-sult of combining at least two word scores generated by differing algorithms. In one embodiment, a detailed acoustic match word score is combined with an approxi-mate acoustic match word score to provide a total word score for a subject word. In another embodiment, a polling word score is combined with an acoustic match word score to provide a total word score for a subject word. The acoustic models employed in the acoustic matching may correspond, alternatively, to phonetic el-ements or to fenemes. Fenemes represent labels generated by an acoustic processor in response to a spoken input. Apparatus and method for determining word scores ac-cording to approximate acoustic matching and for deter-mining word scores according to a polling methodology are disclosed.

357 citations

##### Cited by

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Bell Labs

^{1}, École Normale Supérieure^{2}, AT&T^{3}, École Polytechnique de Montréal^{4}, Alcatel-Lucent^{5}TL;DR: In this article, a graph transformer network (GTN) is proposed for handwritten character recognition, which can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters.

Abstract: Multilayer neural networks trained with the back-propagation algorithm constitute the best example of a successful gradient based learning technique. Given an appropriate network architecture, gradient-based learning algorithms can be used to synthesize a complex decision surface that can classify high-dimensional patterns, such as handwritten characters, with minimal preprocessing. This paper reviews various methods applied to handwritten character recognition and compares them on a standard handwritten digit recognition task. Convolutional neural networks, which are specifically designed to deal with the variability of 2D shapes, are shown to outperform all other techniques. Real-life document recognition systems are composed of multiple modules including field extraction, segmentation recognition, and language modeling. A new learning paradigm, called graph transformer networks (GTN), allows such multimodule systems to be trained globally using gradient-based methods so as to minimize an overall performance measure. Two systems for online handwriting recognition are described. Experiments demonstrate the advantage of global training, and the flexibility of graph transformer networks. A graph transformer network for reading a bank cheque is also described. It uses convolutional neural network character recognizers combined with global training techniques to provide record accuracy on business and personal cheques. It is deployed commercially and reads several million cheques per day.

42,067 citations

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18 Nov 2016

TL;DR: Deep learning as mentioned in this paper is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts, and it is used in many applications such as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames.

Abstract: Deep learning is a form of machine learning that enables computers to learn from experience and understand the world in terms of a hierarchy of concepts. Because the computer gathers knowledge from experience, there is no need for a human computer operator to formally specify all the knowledge that the computer needs. The hierarchy of concepts allows the computer to learn complicated concepts by building them out of simpler ones; a graph of these hierarchies would be many layers deep. This book introduces a broad range of topics in deep learning. The text offers mathematical and conceptual background, covering relevant concepts in linear algebra, probability theory and information theory, numerical computation, and machine learning. It describes deep learning techniques used by practitioners in industry, including deep feedforward networks, regularization, optimization algorithms, convolutional networks, sequence modeling, and practical methodology; and it surveys such applications as natural language processing, speech recognition, computer vision, online recommendation systems, bioinformatics, and videogames. Finally, the book offers research perspectives, covering such theoretical topics as linear factor models, autoencoders, representation learning, structured probabilistic models, Monte Carlo methods, the partition function, approximate inference, and deep generative models. Deep Learning can be used by undergraduate or graduate students planning careers in either industry or research, and by software engineers who want to begin using deep learning in their products or platforms. A website offers supplementary material for both readers and instructors.

38,208 citations

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Bell Labs

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the basic theory of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as originated by L.E. Baum and T. Petrie (1966) and give practical details on methods of implementation of the theory along with a description of selected applications of HMMs to distinct problems in speech recognition.

Abstract: This tutorial provides an overview of the basic theory of hidden Markov models (HMMs) as originated by L.E. Baum and T. Petrie (1966) and gives practical details on methods of implementation of the theory along with a description of selected applications of the theory to distinct problems in speech recognition. Results from a number of original sources are combined to provide a single source of acquiring the background required to pursue further this area of research. The author first reviews the theory of discrete Markov chains and shows how the concept of hidden states, where the observation is a probabilistic function of the state, can be used effectively. The theory is illustrated with two simple examples, namely coin-tossing, and the classic balls-in-urns system. Three fundamental problems of HMMs are noted and several practical techniques for solving these problems are given. The various types of HMMs that have been studied, including ergodic as well as left-right models, are described. >

21,819 citations

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TL;DR: This article provides an overview of progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

Abstract: Most current speech recognition systems use hidden Markov models (HMMs) to deal with the temporal variability of speech and Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) to determine how well each state of each HMM fits a frame or a short window of frames of coefficients that represents the acoustic input. An alternative way to evaluate the fit is to use a feed-forward neural network that takes several frames of coefficients as input and produces posterior probabilities over HMM states as output. Deep neural networks (DNNs) that have many hidden layers and are trained using new methods have been shown to outperform GMMs on a variety of speech recognition benchmarks, sometimes by a large margin. This article provides an overview of this progress and represents the shared views of four research groups that have had recent successes in using DNNs for acoustic modeling in speech recognition.

9,091 citations

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TL;DR: A generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph, that computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function.

Abstract: Algorithms that must deal with complicated global functions of many variables often exploit the manner in which the given functions factor as a product of "local" functions, each of which depends on a subset of the variables. Such a factorization can be visualized with a bipartite graph that we call a factor graph, In this tutorial paper, we present a generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph. Following a single, simple computational rule, the sum-product algorithm computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sum-product algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's (1988) belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms.

6,637 citations