Lansing M. Prescott
Bio: Lansing M. Prescott is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 401 citations.
01 Aug 1989
TL;DR: The specific microbial indicator groups and processes were sensitive to impacts of GR crops and are part of an evolving framework in developing polyphasic microbial analyses for complete assessment of GR technology that is more reliable than single techniques or general microbial assays.
Abstract: Current crop production relies heavily on transgenic, glyphosate-resistant (GR) cultivars. Widespread cultivation of transgenic crops has received considerable attention. Impacts of glyphosate on rhizosphere microorganisms and activities are reviewed based on published and new data from long-term field projects documenting effects of glyphosate applied to GR soybean and maize. Field studies conducted in Missouri, U.S.A. during 1997–2007 assessed effects of glyphosate applied to GR soybean and maize on root colonization and soil populations of Fusarium and selected rhizosphere bacteria. Frequency of root-colonizing Fusarium increased significantly after glyphosate application during growing seasons in each year at all sites. Roots of GR soybean and maize treated with glyphosate were heavily colonized by Fusarium compared to non-GR or GR cultivars not treated with glyphosate. Microbial groups and functions affected by glyphosate included Mn transformation and plant availability; phytopathogen–antagonistic bacterial interactions; and reduction in nodulation. Root-exuded glyphosate may serve as a nutrient source for fungi and stimulate propagule germination. The specific microbial indicator groups and processes were sensitive to impacts of GR crops and are part of an evolving framework in developing polyphasic microbial analyses for complete assessment of GR technology that is more reliable than single techniques or general microbial assays.
TL;DR: It was concluded that P. aeruginosa is an ideal candidate for bioremediation and wheat growth promotion against Zn-induced oxidative stress by improving the availability of necessary nutrient, eliciting antioxidant defense system as well as by lowering the Zn metal uptake.
Abstract: Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), whose role is still underestimated, plays an important (or perhaps essential) role in improving plant growth. The comprehensive understanding of bacterial plant growth promoting mechanism helps to get sustainable agriculture production under biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa having maximum inhibitory concentration of 1500mg kg(-1) against Zn was isolated from arable land, irrigated with industrial effluent and evaluated to determine it bioremediation potential. The study was mainly focused on plant biomass production, nutrient uptake and oxidative stress tolerance in relation to the activities of antioxidative enzymes and the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants. The oxidative stress tolerance was measured by estimating the MDA accumulation as well as H2O2 production in wheat plants under Zn (1000mg kg(-1)) stress and inoculation of soil with Zn resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zn in rooting medium reduced the plant growth, leaf photosynthetic pigments as well as uptake of N and P. However, content of MDA and H2O2 increased at higher concentration of Zn. Inoculation of P. aeruginosa improved the uptake of P and N in wheat plants with an increase in leaf chlorophyll, total soluble protein and plant biomass production. Analysis of plant root and shoot disclosed that Zn concentration was significantly lowered in P. aeruginosa inoculated zinc stressed plants as compare to the plants grown under Zn stress only. The amelioration of adverse effects of Zn stress on biomass production due to P. aeruginosa inoculation was related with enhanced antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD and CAT), and the contents of non-enzymatic components such as ascorbic acid and total phenolics (TPC) as compare to Zn-treated plants. The up-gradation in antioxidative defense mechanism, resulted a reduction in H2O2 and MDA content due to the scavenging of ROS by antioxidants. It was concluded that P. aeruginosa is an ideal candidate for bioremediation and wheat growth promotion against Zn-induced oxidative stress by improving the availability of necessary nutrient, eliciting antioxidant defense system as well as by lowering the Zn metal uptake.
TL;DR: Insecticidal proteins produced by various subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bound rapidly and tightly onClays, both pure mined clay minerals and soil clays, on humic acids extracted from soil, and on complexes of clay and humic acid.
Abstract: Insecticidal proteins produced by various subspecies (kurstaki, tenebrionis ,a ndisraelensis )o fBacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bound rapidly and tightly on clays, both pure mined clay minerals and soil clays, on humic acids extracted from soil, and on complexes of clay and humic acids. Binding reduced susceptibility of the proteins to microbial degradation. However, bound proteins retained biological activity. Purified Cry1Ab protein and protein released from biomass of transgenic Bt corn and in root exudates of growing Bt corn (13 hybrids representing three transformation events) exhibited binding and persistence in soil. Insecticidal protein was also released in root exudates of Bt potato (Cry3A protein) and rice (Cry1Ab protein) but not in root exudates of Bt canola, cotton, and tobacco (Cry1Ac protein). Vertical movement of CrylAb protein, either purified or in root exudates or biomass of Bt corn, decreased as the concentration of the clay minerals, kaolinite or montmorillonite, in soil increased. Biomass of transgenicBt corn decomposed less in soil than biomass of near-isogenic non-Bt corn, possibly because biomass of Bt corn had a significantly higher content of lignin than biomass of non-Bt corn. Biomass of Bt canola, cotton, potato, rice, and tobacco also decomposed less than biomass of the respective near-isogenic non-Bt plants. However, the lignin content of theseBt plants, which was significantly less than that ofBt corn, was not significantly different from that of their near-isogenic non-Bt counterparts, although it was consistently higher. The Cry1Ab protein had no consistent effects on organisms (earthworms, nematodes, protozoa, bacteria, fungi) in soil or in vitro. The Cry1Ab protein was not taken up from soil by non-Bt corn, carrot, radish, or turnip grown in soil in which Bt corn had been grown or into which biomass of Bt corn had been incorporated.
TL;DR: SBP-8 improves growth of the host plant and protects from salt stressors through more than one mechanism including an effect of ACCD activity and on K(+)/Na(+) ratio in plants.
Abstract: Plant-growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylatedeaminase (ACCD) activity can protect plants from the deleterious effects of abioticstressors. An ACCD bacterial strain, SBP-8, identified as Klebsiella sp., also having other plant-growth-promoting activities, was isolated from Sorghum bicolor growing in the desertregion of Rajasthan, India. ACCD activity of SBP-8 was characterized at biochemical, physiological, and molecular levels. The presence of AcdS, a structural gene for ACCD, was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction. Strain SBP-8 showed optimum growth and ACCD activity at increased salt (NaCl) concentrations of up to 6%, indicating its potential to survive and associate with plants growing in saline soil. Inoculation of wheat plants with SBP-8 when grow in the presence of salt (150-200 mM) and temperature (30-40 °C) stressors resulted inamelioration of stress conditions by increasing plant biomass and chlorophyll content, and are duction in plant growth inhibition (10-100%) occurred due to salt and temperature stressors. Moreover, strain SBP-8 also caused Na(+) exclusion (65%) and increased uptake of K(+) (84.21%) in the host plant. This property can protect plants from adverse effects of Na(+) on plant growth and physiology. Thus, SBP-8 improves growth of the host plant and protects from salt stressors through more than one mechanism including an effect of ACCD activity and on K(+)/Na(+) ratio in plants. The colonization efficiency of strain SBP-8 was confirmedby CFU (colony-forming unit) count, microscopy, and ERIC-PCR based DNA-finger-printing approach. Therefore, and the use of efficient colonizing plant-growth-promoting bacteria may provideinsights into possible biotechnological approaches to decrease the impact of salinity and other stressors.
TL;DR: The RAPD method, used to detect DNA damage in the sublittoral macroalgae Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) exposed to both ambient and elevated irradiances of UV-B, may prove to be a valuable tool for investigating the specific effects of genotoxic agents upon marine algal populations.
Abstract: The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to detect DNA damage in the sublittoral macroalgae Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta) exposed to both ambient and elevated irradiances of UV-B (280–315 nm). To investigate the potential of this method in ecotoxicological assessments, the qualitative and quantitative modifications in RAPD profiles were compared with changes in a number of physiological and fitness parameters. RAPD detectable modifications in DNA profiles were observed in all UV exposed individuals compared with controls. Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence ( F v / F m ratio), in vivo pigment absorptance, thallus growth and RAPD profiles, examined simultaneously, provided a sensitive measure of UV-induced toxicity. In conclusion, the application of the RAPD method in conjunction with other suitable physiological and fitness measurements, may prove to be a valuable tool for investigating the specific effects of genotoxic agents upon marine algal populations. Ultimately, this methodology may allow the ecotoxicological examination of the link between molecular alterations and measurable adverse effects at higher levels of biological organisation.