Other affiliations: Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Bio: Larry Epp is an academic researcher from California Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Carbon nanotube & Resonator. The author has an hindex of 14, co-authored 36 publication(s) receiving 1002 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Larry Epp include Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
01 Apr 2002
Abstract: A tunable nanomechanical oscillator device and system is provided. The nanomechanical oscillator device comprising at least one nanoresonator, such as a suspended nanotube, designed such that injecting charge density into the tube (e.g. by applying a capacitively-cuopled voltage bias) changes the resonant frequency of the nanotube, and where exposing the resonator to an RF bias induces oscillitory movement in the suspended portion of the nanotube, forming a nanoscale resonator, as well as a force sensor when operated in an inverse mode. A method of producing an oriented nanoscale resonator structure with integrated electrodes is also provided.
TL;DR: The fabrication and characterization of a nanoelectromechanical switch based on carbon nanotubes, which was measured to have speeds that are 3 orders of magnitude higher than MEMS-based electrostatically driven switches, with switching times down to a few nanoseconds, while at the same time requiring pull voltages less than 5 V.
Abstract: We describe the fabrication and characterization of a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch based on carbon nanotubes. Our NEM structure consists of single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) suspended over shallow trenches in a SiO(2) layer, with a Nb pull electrode beneath. The nanotube growth is done on-chip using a patterned Fe catalyst and a methane chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process at 850 degrees C. Electrical measurements of these devices show well-defined ON and OFF states as a dc bias up to a few volts is applied between the CNT and the Nb pull electrode. The CNT switches were measured to have speeds that are 3 orders of magnitude higher than MEMS-based electrostatically driven switches, with switching times down to a few nanoseconds, while at the same time requiring pull voltages less than 5 V.
Abstract: This paper describes a dual-polarized rectenna capable of producing a 50-V output voltage that can be used for driving mechanical actuators. This study demonstrates a circuit topology that allows the output of multiple rectenna elements to be combined in order to step up the output voltage. In this paper, an independent rectifying circuit is used for each of two orthogonal polarizations. By proper combination, the output voltage is doubled over that of the single polarization case. Such panels are being explored for use on the next-generation space telescope to eliminate wiring between actuators and provide for true mechanical isolation.
•01 Apr 2002
Abstract: A tunable nanomechanical filter system (10) comprising an array of nanofeatures (18), such as nanotubes, where the nanofeatures (18) are in signal communication with means for inducing a difference in charge density in the nanofeature (18) such that the mechanical resonant frequency of the nanofeature (18) can be tuned, and where the nanofeature (18) is in signal communication with a waveguide (14) or other RF bias conduit such that an RF signal having a frequency corresponding to the mechanical resonant frequency of the array will couple to the array thereby inducing resonant motion in the array of nanofeatures (18), and subsequently coupling to an output waveguide (16), forming a nanoscale RF filter (10) is provided. A method of producing a nanoscale RF filter (10) structure controllably positioned and oriented with a waveguide (14/16) and integrated electrodes (20) is also provided.
Abstract: A method of using low-loss waveguide septum combiners is developed into a high-power -band (31-36 GHz) amplifier producing 50 W at 33 GHz (Ka-band) using 32 low-power (>2 W) solid-state amplifier modules. By using low-loss waveguide combining and a packaged monolithic microwave integrated circuit with a low-loss microstrip-to-waveguide launcher, the output loss is minimized, allowing for the overall power-combining efficiency to remain high, 80% (average insertion loss of combiner < 0.7 dB and average insertion loss of launcher <0.3 dB) over 31-36 GHz. In the past, lower power-combining efficiencies have limited the number of modules that can be combined at -band, and hence, have limited the power output. The approach demonstrated in this paper, with high power-combining efficiency, allows a very large number (32) of solid-state amplifier modules to be combined to produce high powers. Greater than 50 W was demonstrated with low power modules, but even higher powers 120 W are possible. The current approach is based on corporate combining, using low-loss waveguide septum combiners that provide isolation, maintaining the true graceful degradation of a modular solid-state amplifier system.
Abstract: With advances in nanotechnology enabling us to structure new materials at the nanoscale, the opportunity exists for developing novel material systems and devices capable of self-sensing and active response. Intrinsic coupling of electrical properties and mechanical deformation in carbon nanotubes makes them ideal candidates for future multi-functional material systems that combine adaptive and sensory capabilities. For development of these material systems with multi-functional constituents for sensing and actuation a fundamental knowledge of their structure/property relations is necessary. In this article, we review some of the recent advances in nanotube and nanotube-based composite sensors and actuators, with a particular emphasis on their electromechanical behavior. The fundamentals of carbon nanotube electromechanical behavior and its application towards the development of nanoscale sensor and actuator systems are first introduced. Then, research on the electrical percolation behavior of carbon nanotube-based composites is reviewed. Finally, the development of carbon nanotube-based composites and their potential use as macroscopic actuators and sensors is highlighted.
Abstract: This paper presents a study of reception and rectification of broad-band statistically time-varying low-power-density microwave radiation. The applications are in wireless powering of industrial sensors and recycling of ambient RF energy. A 64-element dual-circularly-polarized spiral rectenna array is designed and characterized over a frequency range of 2-18 GHz with single-tone and multitone incident waves. The integrated design of the antenna and rectifier, using a combination of full-wave electromagnetic field analysis and harmonic balance nonlinear circuit analysis, eliminates matching and filtering circuits, allowing for a compact element design. The rectified dc power and efficiency is characterized as a function of dc load and dc circuit topology, RF frequency, polarization, and incidence angle for power densities between 10/sup -5/-10/sup -1/ mW/cm/sup 2/. In addition, the increase in rectenna efficiency for multitone input waves is presented.
•16 Jul 2002
Abstract: The present invention relates generally to sub-microelectronic circuitry, and more particularly to nanometer-scale articles, including nanoscale wires which can be selectively doped at various locations and at various levels. In some cases, the articles may be single crystals. The nanoscale wires can be doped, for example, differentially along their length, or radially, and either in terms of identity of dopant, concentration of dopant, or both. This may be used to provide both n-type and p-type conductivity in a single item, or in different items in close proximity to each other, such as in a crossbar array. The fabrication and growth of such articles is described, and the arrangement of such articles to fabricate electronic, optoelectronic, or spintronic devices and components. For example, semiconductor materials can be doped to form n-type and p-type semiconductor regions for making a variety of devices such as field effect transistors, bipolar transistors, complementary inverters, tunnel diodes, light emitting diodes, sensors, and the like.
Abstract: The idea of wireless power transfer (WPT) has been around since the inception of electricity. In the late 19th century, Nikola Tesla described the freedom to transfer energy between two points without the need for a physical connection to a power source as an ?all-surpassing importance to man? . A truly wireless device, capable of being remotely powered, not only allows the obvious freedom of movement but also enables devices to be more compact by removing the necessity of a large battery. Applications could leverage this reduction in size and weight to increase the feasibility of concepts such as paper-thin, flexible displays , contact-lens-based augmented reality , and smart dust , among traditional point-to-point power transfer applications. While several methods of wireless power have been introduced since Tesla?s work, including near-field magnetic resonance and inductive coupling, laser-based optical power transmission, and far-field RF/microwave energy transmission, only RF/microwave and laser-based systems are truly long-range methods. While optical power transmission certainly has merit, its mechanisms are outside of the scope of this article and will not be discussed.
Abstract: We discovered that many of the commonly studied two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) nanoscale materials are piezoelectric, unlike their bulk parent crystals. On the macroscopic scale, piezoelectricity is widely used to achieve robust electromechanical coupling in a rich variety of sensors and actuators. Remarkably, our density-functional theory calculations of the piezoelectric coefficients of monolayer BN, MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, WS2, WSe2, and WTe2 reveal that some of these materials exhibit stronger piezoelectric coupling than traditionally employed bulk wurtzite structures. We find that the piezoelectric coefficients span more than 1 order of magnitude, and exhibit monotonic periodic trends. The discovery of this property in many two-dimensional materials enables active sensing, actuating, and new electronic components for nanoscale devices based on the familiar piezoelectric effect.
Author's H-index: 14