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Laura E. Caulfield

Bio: Laura E. Caulfield is an academic researcher from Johns Hopkins University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Population & Pregnancy. The author has an hindex of 61, co-authored 208 publications receiving 17852 citations. Previous affiliations of Laura E. Caulfield include International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh & Cornell University.


Papers
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TL;DR: The high mortality and disease burden resulting from these nutrition-related factors make a compelling case for the urgent implementation of interventions to reduce their occurrence or ameliorate their consequences.

5,634 citations

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TL;DR: A significant proportion of deaths in young children worldwide is attributable to low weight-for-age, and efforts to reduce malnutrition should be a policy priority.

1,011 citations

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TL;DR: The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia.

609 citations

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TL;DR: The reduction of ARI deaths underscores the broad-based beneficial effect of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of infectious diseases beyond its role in reducing exposure to contaminated food, which may have contributed to the strong protection against diarrhea deaths.
Abstract: Objectives. To describe breastfeeding practices and investigate the influence of exclusive breastfeeding in early infancy on the risk of infant deaths, especially those attributable to respiratory infections (ARI) and diarrhea. Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted on a birth cohort of 1677 infants who were born in slum areas of Dhaka in Bangladesh and followed from birth to 12 months of age. After enrollment at birth, the infants were visited 5 more times by 12 months of age. Verbal autopsy, based on a structured questionnaire, was used to assign a cause to the 180 reported deaths. Proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the effect of breastfeeding practices, introduced as a time-varying variable, after accounting for other variables, including birth weight. Overall neonatal, postneonatal and infant mortality, and mortality attributable to ARI and diarrhea were measured. Results. The proportion of infants who were breastfed exclusively was only 6% at enrollment, increasing to 53% at 1 month and then gradually declining to 5% at 6 months of age. Predominant breastfeeding declined from 66% at enrollment to 4% at 12 months of age. Very few infants were not breastfed, whereas the proportion of partially breastfed infants increased with age. Breastfeeding practices did not differ between low and normal birth weight infants at any age. The overall infant mortality rate was 114 deaths per 1000 live births. Compared with exclusive breastfeeding in the first few months of life, partial or no breastfeeding was associated with a 2.23-fold higher risk of infant deaths resulting from all causes and 2.40- and 3.94-fold higher risk of deaths attributable to ARI and diarrhea, respectively. Conclusion. The important role of appropriate breastfeeding practices in the survival of infants is clear from this analysis. The reduction of ARI deaths underscores the broad-based beneficial effect of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of infectious diseases beyond its role in reducing exposure to contaminated food, which may have contributed to the strong protection against diarrhea deaths.

582 citations

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TL;DR: Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ≥3 / age ≥35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period.
Abstract: Previous studies have reported on adverse neonatal outcomes associated with parity and maternal age. Many of these studies have relied on cross-sectional data, from which drawing causal inference is complex. We explore the associations between parity/maternal age and adverse neonatal outcomes using data from cohort studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data from 14 cohort studies were included. Parity (nulliparous, parity 1-2, parity ≥3) and maternal age (<18 years, 18-<35 years, ≥35 years) categories were matched with each other to create exposure categories, with those who are parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years as the reference. Outcomes included small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm, neonatal and infant mortality. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated per study and meta-analyzed. Nulliparous, age <18 year women, compared with women who were parity 1-2 and age 18-<35 years had the highest odds of SGA (pooled adjusted OR: 1.80), preterm (pooled aOR: 1.52), neonatal mortality (pooled aOR: 2.07), and infant mortality (pooled aOR: 1.49). Increased odds were also noted for SGA and neonatal mortality for nulliparous/age 18-<35 years, preterm, neonatal, and infant mortality for parity ≥3/age 18-<35 years, and preterm and neonatal mortality for parity ≥3/≥35 years. Nulliparous women <18 years of age have the highest odds of adverse neonatal outcomes. Family planning has traditionally been the least successful in addressing young age as a risk factor; a renewed focus must be placed on finding effective interventions that delay age at first birth. Higher odds of adverse outcomes are also seen among parity ≥3 / age ≥35 mothers, suggesting that reproductive health interventions need to address the entirety of a woman’s reproductive period. Funding was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (810-2054) by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to support the activities of the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group.

492 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016.

10,401 citations

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Stephen S Lim1, Theo Vos, Abraham D. Flaxman1, Goodarz Danaei2  +207 moreInstitutions (92)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs; sum of years lived with disability [YLD] and years of life lost [YLL]) attributable to the independent effects of 67 risk factors and clusters of risk factors for 21 regions in 1990 and 2010.

9,324 citations

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TL;DR: All-cause age-standardised YLD rates decreased by 3·9% from 1990 to 2017; however, the all-age YLD rate increased by 7·2% while the total sum of global YLDs increased from 562 million (421–723) to 853 million (642–1100).

7,419 citations

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TL;DR: The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) as mentioned in this paper was created to marshal the evidence on what can be done to promote health equity and to foster a global movement to achieve it.

7,335 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) as discussed by the authors provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

5,668 citations